Musculoskeletal Disorders Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Musculoskeletal Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Disorders Deck (69):
1

Form of electromagnetic radiation.

X-Ray

2

Nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown.

Bone Scan

3

Creates a 3-D image from multiple X-rays images.

Computed Tomography Scan (CT)

4

Measure the electrical impulses of muscles at rest and during contraction.

Electromyogram (EMG)

5

Allows analysis of fluid for signs of inflammation, bleeding, and infection.

Synovial Fluid Aspiration

6

Uses strong magnetic field. No radiation. Patients with some types of metal implants can not have.

MRI

7

Minimally invase surgical prodecure in which an examination and sometimes treats of damage of the interior of a joint is performed.

Arthroscopy

8

Elevated in many muscle diseases.

Serum Creatine Kinase (SCK).

9

Results when the skin is broken.

Open Fracture

10

Skin is not broken at the fracture site.

Closed Fracture

11

A bone is broken to form two or more separate pieces.

Complete Fracture

12

Bone is only partially broken.

Incomplete Fracture

13

Single break in the bone in which the bone ends maintain their alignment and position.

Simple Fracture

14

The are multiple fracture lines and bone fragments.

Comminuted Fracture

15

When a bone is crushed or collapses into small pieces.

Compression Fracture

16

When one end of the bone is forced into the adjacent bone.

Impacted

17

Result from a weakness in the bone structure. Example - during cancer.

Pathologic

18

Fracture result from repeated excess stress.

Stress

19

Occur in the skull when the broken section is forced inward on the brain.

Depressed

20

Fracture across the bone.

Transverse

21

A break along the axis of bone.

Linear

22

Fracture at an angle to the diaphysis.

Oblique

23

Fracture that angles around the bone.

Spiral

24

Fracture at the distal radius at the wrist.

Colle's Fracture

25

Fracture of the lower fibula due to excessive stress on the ankle.

Pott's Fracture

26

Fracture of the 5th metatarsal.

Jones Fracture

27

Forms in the medullary canal, under the periosteum, and between the ends of the bone fragments.

Hematoma (clot)

28

Form new cartilage.

Chondroblasts

29

The bone ends become splinted together by a _______.

Fibrocartilaginous callus.

30

Generate new bone.

Osteoblasts

31

Amount of local damage to bone and soft tissue, amount of realignment and approximation, secondary problem, and numbers systemic factors.

Factors Affecting Healing Process

32

Due to local pain and irritation.

Muscle spasm

33

Such as tetanus, osteomyelitis. Precautions include antibiotics.

Infections

34

Occurs as edema increases in 1st 48 hours after trauma and casting.

Ischemia

35

Grating sound heard, if the ends of bone fragments move over each other.

Crepitus

36

Increased pressure of fluid within fascia, the nonelastic covering of muscles. Usually lower leg.

Compartment Syndrome

37

Can occur with severe trauma or tearing of periosteum.

Nerve damage

38

Requires surgery, plates & pins.

Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF)

39

Cast, splints, and traction.

Immobilizations

40

Application of forces or weight pulling on limb that is opposed by body weight.

Traction

41

Separation of two bones at a joint with loss of contact between the articulating bone surfaces.

Dislocation

42

If bone is only partially displaced.

Subluxation

43

Tear in ligament.

Sprain

44

Tear in a tendon/muscle.

Strain

45

Ligaments or tendons completely separated from their bony attachment.

Avulsion

46

Common metabolic bone disorder. Decreased bone mass and density. More common in women.

Osteoporosis

47

Postmenopausal, senile, and idopathic.

Primary Osteoporosis

48

Following specific primary disorder (Cushing's syndrome).

Secondary Osteoporosis

49

Result from deficit of vitamin D and phosphates.

Rickets & Osteomalacia

50

Bow legs, in children.

Rickets

51

Soft bones and compression fractures, in adults.

Osteomalacia

52

Progressive bone disease that occurs in adults older than 40 years.

Paget's Diease

53

Majority of primary bone tumors are _____.

Malignant

54

Malignant neoplasm that usually develops in the metaphasis of the femur, tibia, or fibula in children/young adults.

Osteosarcoma

55

Malignant neoplasm common in adolescents that occurs in the diaphysis of long bones.

Ewing's Sarcoma

56

Group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of skeletal muscle.

Muscular Dystrophy

57

Most common type of muscular dystrophy is?

Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy

58

Group of disorders characterized by pain and stiffness affecting muscles, tendons, and surrounding soft tissue. Higher in women 20-50 years old.

Fibromyaligia

59

Wear and tear arthritis.

Osetoarthritis

60

Bone spurs.

Osteophytes

61

Auto-immune disease, causing chronic systemic inflammatory disease.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

62

Inflammation recurs, synovial cells proliferate.

Synovitis

63

Granulation tissue from synovium spreads over articular capsule.

Pannus Formation

64

Eroded by enzymes from panes, panes also cuts off nutrients.

Cartilage Erosion

65

Panes between bone ends becomes fibrotic, limits movement.

Fibrosis

66

Joint fixation and deformity.

Ankylosis

67

Results from deposits of uric acid and rate crystals in the joint. Most common in men older than 40 years old.

Gout

68

Develops in a single joint.

Infections (Septic) Arthritis

69

Chronic progressive inflammatory condition. Affects the SI joints, intervertebral spaces, and costovertebral joints of the axial skeleton.

Ankylosing Spondylitis