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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System Deck (14):
1

Common/Concerning MSK Symptoms

(6)

  1. Low back pn
  2. Neck pn
  3. Monoarticular or polyarticular joint pn 
  4. Inflamatory/infectious joint pn
  5. Joint pn + systemic constitutional symptoms 
    • Fever
    • Chills
    • Rash
    • Anorexia
    • Weight loss
    • Weakness
  6. Joint pn + organ symptoms 

2

MSK Assessment Tips

(3)

  1. Have pt point to pn, perferably c 1 finger
  2. MOI, especially if traumatic 
  3. Determine pn characteristics
    • ​Localized vs diffuse
    • Acute vs chronic
    • Inflammatory vs noninflammatory

3

General MSK Eval Procedure

(4 categories, 3/4/4/5 specifics)

  1. Visually inspect
    • ​Symmetry
    • Aligment 
    • Gross defomrities 
  2. Inspect +palpate
    • ​Skin changes
    • Nodules
    • Muscle atrophy
    • Crepitus
  3. Assess for degenerative or inflammatory changes 
    • ​Swelling
    • Warmth
    • Tenderness
    • Redness
  4. Evaluate ROM c joint specific maneuvers to determine
    • ​Functionality
    • Stability
    • Ligament integrity
    • Tendeon integrity
    • Bursae integrity 

4

Should Examination 

(3 steps)

  1. Inspect for swelling, deformity, atrophy, or abnml positioning
  2. Palpate over bony landmarks for tenderness
  3. Check Range of motion - flexion, extension, abdocution, adduction, internal/external rotation 

5

Elbow Examination

(3 steps)

  1. Inspect for swelling/masses
  2. Palpate olecrenon process, medial/lateral epicondyles, and extensor surface of forearm
  3. Check ROM - flextion, extension, supination, pronation 

6

Wrist Examination

(3 steps)

  1. Inspect palmar and dorsal surfaces for swelling/defomrities 
  2. Palpate distal radius and ulna on the lateral and medial surface. Palp the groove of each wrist joint c thumbs
  3. Check ROM - extension, flexion, ulnar/radial deviation, supination, and pronation 

7

Finger/Hand Examination

(3 steps)

  1. Inspect for swelling, deformities, and redness
  2. Palpate all MCP joints + medial/lateral aspects of PIP and DIP
  3. Check ROM - flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, thumb opposition 

8

Spine Inspection

(2 steps)

From the side, inspect curves

  • Cercial
  • Lumbar
  • Thoracic

From behind

  • Upright spinal column
  • Alignment - shoulders, iliac crests, gluteal folds
  • Skin - markings, tags, masses  

9

Spinal Palpation

Pt may stand or sit to palpate teh following - 

  • Spinous processes 
  • Paravertebral muscles
  • Sacroilliac joint

10

Spinal ROM Eval

(2 categories, 2/2)

Neck

  1. Flextion/extension: chin to chest, look up at celing
  2. Rotation and lat bending: look over one shoulder then the other, bring ear to shoulder

Spine (support pt during exam if necessary)

  1. Flexion/extension: bend forward and try to touch toes, bend backwards
  2. Rotation and lat bending: rotate trunk from side to side 

11

Hip Palpation

  • Anterior aspect - 
    • Iliac crest
    • ASIS
    • Greater trochanter
    • Pubic sympthysis
  • Poserior Aspect
    • PSIS
    • Greater trochanter
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • SA joint
  • Inguinal Ligament

12

Hip ROM

(4 aspects)

  1. Flexion - bend knee and pull against abdomen
  2. Extension - leg extends posteriorly c pt carefully positioned near table edge
  3. Abduction/Adduction - reach across and grasp opposite hip; grasp ankle and move leg laterally, then medially, toward opposite hip
  4. External/Internal Rotation - flex hip and knee to 90 degrees, grasp ankle, rotate flexed lower leg medially then laterally 

13

Knee Examination

(3 aspects)

  1. Inspect contours/aligment of kenes for swelling, atrophy of quadriceps muscle
  2. Palpate c knee flexed, note any tenderness
    • ​Along joint line, lincluding menisci and bursae
    • Along the medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL/LCL)
    • Over the patellar tendon
  3. Assess ROM while sitting - flexion and extension 

14

Ankle/Foot Examination

  1. Inspect surfaces of ankles/feet for deformities, nodules, swellings, calluses, corns
  2. Palpate these structures
    • ​Anterior ankle
    • Achilles tendon
    • Heel
    • Medial and lateral malleolus
    • Heads of the 5 metatarsals (compress b/w thumbs and index finger)
  3. ROM
    • ​Ankle flexion (plantar flexion) - point foot towards floor
    • Ankle extension (dorsiflexion) - point foot towards ceiling
    • Inversion - bend heel inward
    • Eversion - bend heel outward