Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System: Limbs Deck (42):
what does the appendicular skeleton consist of?
limbs and girdles
what two types of girdle are there?
pelvis girdle (pubis, ischium, ilium) and pectoral girdle (clavical and scapula)
what is the collarbone called?
what is the shoulder blade called?
what is the name of the bone in the top part of an arm?
what are the names of the two bones in a forearm?
radious and ulna
what are the bones in a hand called?
carpus, metacarpals, phalanges
what is the bone in a thigh called?
what are the bones in the lower leg called?
tibia and fibula
what is the knee bone called?
what is the heel bone called?
what are the bones in a foot called?
tarsus, metatarsals, phalanges
what is a synovial joint?
those in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity
are synovial joints mobile or immobile?
where are synovial joints found?
most joints of the limbs are synovial.
what is a fibrous joint?
the bones are joined by fibrous tissue and no joint cavity is present
how mobile are fibrous joints?
some are slightly mobile but most are immobile
where are fibrous joints found?
skull, between bones (i.e. ligament), teeth sockets
what is a cartilaginous joint?
where the articulating bones are united by cartilidge
how mobile are cartilage joints?
where are cartilaginous joints found?
between sternum and ribs, pelvic symphysis
where do you find a ball and socket joint?
shoulder and hip (girdles)
what movement do you find at ball and socket joints?
how mobile are ball and socket joints?
most mobile joint
where do you find a hinge joint?
at mid-point of limbs (knee, elbow) and between metacarpals/metatarsals and phalanges
what movement to you find at a hinge joint?
how mobile are hinge joints?
more limited mobility than ball and socket
where would you find a sliding joint?
between carpals and some tarsals
how mobile are sliding joints?
what is flexion?
bending movement that decrease angle of joint and brings articulating bones closer together. e.g. bending head forward on chest, bending the knee, moving arms forward and back.
what is extension?
reverse of flexion. increases the angle of joint and brings articulating bones further away from each other. e.g. straightening flexed neck or knee.
what is abduction?
a movement of a limb AWAY from the midline of the body, along the frontal plane. e.g. raising arm or thigh laterally, spreading toes or finger apart.
what is adduction?
opposite of abduction so moving a limb TOWARDS the midline.
what is circumduction?
moving a limb so that is describes a cone in a space. e.g. moving arm in circle.
what are supination and pronation?
refers to movement of radius around the ulna. supination, the movement is lateral rotation (e.g. turning the foot inwards) and in pronation, the movement is medial rotation (e.g. turning the foot outwards)
in the embryo, what do limbs arise from?
limb buds from the lateral plate mesoderm (bone, connective tissue) and paraxial mesoderm i.e. somites (muscle)
what did the earliest vertebrates lack?
paired appendages - they only had median (dorsal and ventral midline) fins to stop them rolling over
what do paired fins help a swimming animal do?
stabilise its swimming and change direction
what fish has limb-like fins?
what two types of fin are there?
delicate ray-fins and fleshy lobe-fins
what type of fins have a strong internal skeleton?