Musculoskeletal System: Limbs Flashcards Preview

ANAT1003 test 2 > Musculoskeletal System: Limbs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System: Limbs Deck (42):
1

what does the appendicular skeleton consist of?

limbs and girdles

2

what two types of girdle are there?

pelvis girdle (pubis, ischium, ilium) and pectoral girdle (clavical and scapula)

3

what is the collarbone called?

clavicle

4

what is the shoulder blade called?

scapula

5

what is the name of the bone in the top part of an arm?

humerus

6

what are the names of the two bones in a forearm?

radious and ulna

7

what are the bones in a hand called?

carpus, metacarpals, phalanges

8

what is the bone in a thigh called?

femur

9

what are the bones in the lower leg called?

tibia and fibula

10

what is the knee bone called?

patella

11

what is the heel bone called?

calcaneum

12

what are the bones in a foot called?

tarsus, metatarsals, phalanges

13

what is a synovial joint?

those in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity

14

are synovial joints mobile or immobile?

mobile

15

where are synovial joints found?

most joints of the limbs are synovial.

16

what is a fibrous joint?

the bones are joined by fibrous tissue and no joint cavity is present

17

how mobile are fibrous joints?

some are slightly mobile but most are immobile

18

where are fibrous joints found?

skull, between bones (i.e. ligament), teeth sockets

19

what is a cartilaginous joint?

where the articulating bones are united by cartilidge

20

how mobile are cartilage joints?

immobile

21

where are cartilaginous joints found?

between sternum and ribs, pelvic symphysis

22

where do you find a ball and socket joint?

shoulder and hip (girdles)

23

what movement do you find at ball and socket joints?

circumduction

24

how mobile are ball and socket joints?

most mobile joint

25

where do you find a hinge joint?

at mid-point of limbs (knee, elbow) and between metacarpals/metatarsals and phalanges

26

what movement to you find at a hinge joint?

flexion-extension

27

how mobile are hinge joints?

more limited mobility than ball and socket

28

where would you find a sliding joint?

between carpals and some tarsals

29

how mobile are sliding joints?

limited movement

30

what is flexion?

bending movement that decrease angle of joint and brings articulating bones closer together. e.g. bending head forward on chest, bending the knee, moving arms forward and back.

31

what is extension?

reverse of flexion. increases the angle of joint and brings articulating bones further away from each other. e.g. straightening flexed neck or knee.

32

what is abduction?

a movement of a limb AWAY from the midline of the body, along the frontal plane. e.g. raising arm or thigh laterally, spreading toes or finger apart.

33

what is adduction?

opposite of abduction so moving a limb TOWARDS the midline.

34

what is circumduction?

moving a limb so that is describes a cone in a space. e.g. moving arm in circle.

35

what are supination and pronation?

refers to movement of radius around the ulna. supination, the movement is lateral rotation (e.g. turning the foot inwards) and in pronation, the movement is medial rotation (e.g. turning the foot outwards)

36

in the embryo, what do limbs arise from?

limb buds from the lateral plate mesoderm (bone, connective tissue) and paraxial mesoderm i.e. somites (muscle)

37

what did the earliest vertebrates lack?

paired appendages - they only had median (dorsal and ventral midline) fins to stop them rolling over

38

what do paired fins help a swimming animal do?

stabilise its swimming and change direction

39

what fish has limb-like fins?

angler fish

40

what two types of fin are there?

delicate ray-fins and fleshy lobe-fins

41

what type of fins have a strong internal skeleton?

fleshy lobe-fins

42

what factors can influence the differentiation of limbs?

limb development switched on/off, elongation of one or more segments, increase in anteroposterioir axis and so increase in no of digits of proximodistal axis so increase in no of phalanges per digit, later changes e.g. failure to separate phalanges.