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Flashcards in Music 103 - Test 2 Deck (67)
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Renaissance

- rebirth, period of interest in the classical arts of Ancient Greece and Rome
- started in early 15th century and dominated style of western music 1450-1600

1

Protestant Reformation

- movement against certain tenets of Catholic Church --> led by Martin Luther
- singing in the vernacular (simple way) --> no latin

2

Counter Reformation

- catholic response to protestants
- proposed certain reforms (like those related to church music)

3

Golden Age of Polyphony

- renaissance age
- polyphony was prevalent and beautiful

4

Renaissance Motet

- religious vocal composition
- through-composed
- polyphonic texture
- sung in Latin
- invariably serene and worshipful

5

Word Painting

musical illustrations of verbal concepts

6

Through-composed

- each phrase of text is set to a new melody
- part of the renaissance motet

7

Imitative polyphony

- texture of the motet
- different from a cannon/round
- imitation similar (but not the same) as the preceding voice

8

Josquin Desprez

- born in French Netherlands
- spent most of his adult life teaching/composing/performing in Italy
- perfected imitative polyphony technique

9

Giovanni Palestrina

- assimilated and perfected Desprez's techniques
- added personal style/was more conservative
- "prince of music"
- devoted his career to writing religious music --> council of trent
- gave polyphonic mass settings/motets transparency

10

Hymn

- congregational song
- non-lithurgical text religious song

11

Chorale

- characteristic hymn introduced by Martin Luther

12

Strophic form

- two or more stanzas set to the same music
- popular song form

13

Psalm tunes

- tuneful settings of 150 psalms in suitable versions for congregational singing

14

Madrigal

- secular song introduced in Italy that became popular in England
- polyphonic in texture
- expressive in mood
- written in vernacular
- sung at social gatherings homes/private meetings
- could be performed by anyone

15

Lute

- plucked string instrument
- most widely used in 16th century
- played both difficult/simple compositions
- accompanied singing/played vocal music
- similar to guitar

16

Viol

- most popular bowed instrument in Renaissance
- six-string precursor to violin
- ridges to show where string should be held/stopped
- soft & delicate tone

17

Clavichord

- keyboard capable of subtle changes of volume/slight vibrato
- far more sensitive than harpsichord
- metal piece used to strike sting --> held until key was released

18

Vibrato

- rapid variation in pitch

19

Recorder

- end blown, "whistle flute"
- developed in middle ages and popular in Renaissance
- several sizes --> large range of pitches
- held perpendicular versus transverse flute

20

Consort

- ensemble with several members of the same instrument family (3+)
- arranged like vocal choirs

21

Polychoral Music

- music from 2+ choirs, vocal/instrumental
- performed antiphonally (responsive)

22

Concertato Principle

- the principle of contrasting sonorities of large & small vocal/instrumental ensembles (quality of resonance)
- strong appeal to Baroque imagination

23

Baroque

- odd, irregular, uneven

24

Movement

- section of work that has its own design but is part of the whole
- usually separated by a pause

25

Tonal System

- system of harmony based on major/minor scales that dominated Western music since 17th century
- replaced modality for the organization of Western music

26

First practice

- polyphonic
- conservative style of late Renaissance

27

Second practice

- homophonic
- expressive style introduced by Monteverdi

28

Chromaticism

- use of tones on chromatic scale not included in the scale of the current key

29

Libretto

- text of dramatic vocal work