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Flashcards in Music 103 - Test 2 Deck (67):
0

Renaissance

- rebirth, period of interest in the classical arts of Ancient Greece and Rome
- started in early 15th century and dominated style of western music 1450-1600

1

Protestant Reformation

- movement against certain tenets of Catholic Church --> led by Martin Luther
- singing in the vernacular (simple way) --> no latin

2

Counter Reformation

- catholic response to protestants
- proposed certain reforms (like those related to church music)

3

Golden Age of Polyphony

- renaissance age
- polyphony was prevalent and beautiful

4

Renaissance Motet

- religious vocal composition
- through-composed
- polyphonic texture
- sung in Latin
- invariably serene and worshipful

5

Word Painting

musical illustrations of verbal concepts

6

Through-composed

- each phrase of text is set to a new melody
- part of the renaissance motet

7

Imitative polyphony

- texture of the motet
- different from a cannon/round
- imitation similar (but not the same) as the preceding voice

8

Josquin Desprez

- born in French Netherlands
- spent most of his adult life teaching/composing/performing in Italy
- perfected imitative polyphony technique

9

Giovanni Palestrina

- assimilated and perfected Desprez's techniques
- added personal style/was more conservative
- "prince of music"
- devoted his career to writing religious music --> council of trent
- gave polyphonic mass settings/motets transparency

10

Hymn

- congregational song
- non-lithurgical text religious song

11

Chorale

- characteristic hymn introduced by Martin Luther

12

Strophic form

- two or more stanzas set to the same music
- popular song form

13

Psalm tunes

- tuneful settings of 150 psalms in suitable versions for congregational singing

14

Madrigal

- secular song introduced in Italy that became popular in England
- polyphonic in texture
- expressive in mood
- written in vernacular
- sung at social gatherings homes/private meetings
- could be performed by anyone

15

Lute

- plucked string instrument
- most widely used in 16th century
- played both difficult/simple compositions
- accompanied singing/played vocal music
- similar to guitar

16

Viol

- most popular bowed instrument in Renaissance
- six-string precursor to violin
- ridges to show where string should be held/stopped
- soft & delicate tone

17

Clavichord

- keyboard capable of subtle changes of volume/slight vibrato
- far more sensitive than harpsichord
- metal piece used to strike sting --> held until key was released

18

Vibrato

- rapid variation in pitch

19

Recorder

- end blown, "whistle flute"
- developed in middle ages and popular in Renaissance
- several sizes --> large range of pitches
- held perpendicular versus transverse flute

20

Consort

- ensemble with several members of the same instrument family (3+)
- arranged like vocal choirs

21

Polychoral Music

- music from 2+ choirs, vocal/instrumental
- performed antiphonally (responsive)

22

Concertato Principle

- the principle of contrasting sonorities of large & small vocal/instrumental ensembles (quality of resonance)
- strong appeal to Baroque imagination

23

Baroque

- odd, irregular, uneven

24

Movement

- section of work that has its own design but is part of the whole
- usually separated by a pause

25

Tonal System

- system of harmony based on major/minor scales that dominated Western music since 17th century
- replaced modality for the organization of Western music

26

First practice

- polyphonic
- conservative style of late Renaissance

27

Second practice

- homophonic
- expressive style introduced by Monteverdi

28

Chromaticism

- use of tones on chromatic scale not included in the scale of the current key

29

Libretto

- text of dramatic vocal work

30

Recitative

- speech-like text
- homophonic accompaniment (dry)
- orchestral accompaniment (accompanied)

31

Aria

- song-like piece
- expressive, emotional
- generally accompanied by orchestra
- generally homphonic

32

Da Capo aria

- "from beginning"
- ABA design

33

Bel Canto

- "beautiful song"
- applied to BaroqueItalian Opera
- emphasized beauty and virtuosity of voice

34

Castrati

- men who showed great potential as young boys
- castrated to preserve voice range

35

Oratorio

- multi-movement dramatic vocal work on a religious subject performed in concert style
- fewer recitatives, less flamboyant than aria

36

Cantata

- multi-movement dramatic work on religious/secular subject
- performed in concert --> shorter than oratorio
- sung in vernacular, accompanied by organ/sm. orchestra

37

Terraced Dynamics

- abrupt changes of dynamic level

38

Prelude

- short introductory/independent piece for keyboard
- improvisatory --> often paired with fugue

39

Chorale prelude

- prelude based on Lutheran chorale tune

40

Fugue

- imitative polyphonic composition
- 2-6 voices (usually 3 or 4)

41

Toccata

- rhapsodic, virtuosic keyboard piece (show-off)
- improvisatory, flexible despite bing written out

42

Suite

- collection of stylize dance pieces for keyboard
- orchestral piece consisting of selections from dramatic work/dance

43

Bass continuo

- continuous supporting bass line of a Baroque composition
- throughbass

44

Figured Bass

- musical shorthand where composers indicated intervals above bass line with #s rather than notated pitches

45

Chamber Music

- music for one small instrument ensemble with one instrument per music line

46

Sonata

- trio sonata (4 performers) --> most common form
1. 15th/16th century
-composition sounded rather than sung
2. Baroque
- multi-movement composition for 1-2 solo instruments accompanied by continuo
3. Post Baroque
- multi-movement composition for 1-2 solo instruments

47

Orchestra

- mixed ensemble of few wind, string, and occasional percussion

48

Solo concerto

multi-movement composition for orchestra and a solo instrument

49

Concerto grosso

- composition of orchestra and a small group of solo instruments

50

Ritornello

- thematic section, often played by orchestra
- begins concerto movement, divides solo sections
- returns to original form at the end

51

Sonata (2)

da chiesa: sacred
da camera: secular

52

Rococo

- in between period --> elegant, frivolous, ornate style of art
- second quarter of 18th century
- about lavish showing off

53

Sensitive/sentimental style

- emotional style
- inspired by German middle class of second quarter of 18th century
- pulled to more conservative style --> pleasant over profound
- about feelings rather than showing off

54

Giovanni Gabrieli

- famous organist,, teacher, composer
- wrote/performed at St. Marks

55

Henry Purcell

- excelled in vocal dramatic work creation
- wrote sacred choral music, keyboard works, instrumental works

56

Martin Luther

- leader of the Protestant Reformation
- introduced new form of congregational singing --> chorale

57

Thomas Weelkes

Exemplified English madrigal --> as vesta was from Latmos hill descending

58

Louis Bourgeois

- wrote psalm tunes
- protestant hymnals - still sung/played today

59

John Dowland

- produced songs sung in parts/ accompanied by lute or viol
- adapted dance forms like fast-tempo galliard

60

Johann Bach

- church musician, teacher
Continued in the more conservative baroque and sensitive styles

61

George Handel

- originally from Germany
- religious, one of the greatest harpsichord players
- composed more music for theater than church --> Italian operas
- turned to oratorios after opera
- stayed in the conservative baroque/sensitive styles

62

Francois Couperin

- French composer in the Rococo style

63

C.P.E. Bach

- son of Bach (5)
- like father, stayed in the conservative german sensitive style

64

Claudio Monteverdi

- 1607 L'Orfeo
- successfully blended literary, visual, and performance arts
- built bridge between Renaissance and baroque --> first great opera

65

Antonio Vivaldi

- spent most of his life as professional musician
- taught at conservatory-orphanage for girls in Venice
- The Four Seasons - most famous work

66

Stradivari & Guarneri

Makers of violins