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► Stuff to Know 02 - Music, Art, Economics > Music > Flashcards

Flashcards in Music Deck (476):
1

sound organized in time

music

2

the highness or lowness of a sound

pitch

3

orchestral musicians in the US tune to this note

A-440

4

The term for scholars who study the music of other cultures

ethnomusicologists

5

Curt Sachs and Erich von Hornbostel created how many groups of instruments?

4

6

What texture has two or more melodic lines unfold simultaneously

polyphonic

7

What is the art of taking an existing piece of music and giving instructions as to what each individual performer should play

arranging

8

The combination of instruments involved in a work of music

instrumentation

9

Another expressive factor expressing the sound of a piece is called

articulation

10

The primary way tension is created through harmonic _______.

Dissonance

11

what is the broadcast definition of music?

sound organized in time

12

improvisation

simultaneous composition and performance

13

how does raising the amplitude of a sound wave affect the sound?

sound becomes louder

14

a melody that moves primarily in half steps or whole steps conjunct melody

conjunct melody

15

Between which TWO pairs of notes on the keyboard are there no black keys?

B to C and E to F

16

From which key on the keyboard would a natural minor scale consisting only of white keys begin?

A

17

transpose

to move a piece of music from one key to another

18

What aspect of a melody must remain unchanged when it is transposed to another key?

the interval relationships between the notes

19

contour

the overall shape or direction of a melody

20

how does lowering the frequency of a sound wave affect the sound

pitch becomes lower

21

what is the frequency of A above middle C, the note to which orchestral musicians tune their instruments

440 Hz

22

chordophones

instruments that use vibrating strings to produce sound

23

idiophones

instruments whose bodies vibrate to produce sound

24

aerophones

instruments that use a vibrating column of air to produce

25

membranophones

instruments that use a vibrating column of air to produce sound

26

electrophones

instruments that use an oscillator to produce sounds

27

what instrument family includes the flute, bassoon, and saxophone

woodwinds

28

what instrument family includes the tuba, french horn, and bugle

brass

29

what are five examples of stringed instruments

violon, viola, cello, doublebass, and guitar

30

what instruments family includes the marimba, timpani, and vibraphone?

percussion

31

what are four examples of keyboard instruments

piano, harpsichord, organ, and celesta

32

pitch

the higness or lowness of a sound

33

what interval is produced by halving the length of a string on a guitar

octave

34

where is middle c located on the piano keyboard

roughly equidistant from either end

35

overtones

weaker frequencies that color the sound of a note

36

into how many equal parts does equal temperament divide the octave

12

37

chromatic scale

the 12 pitches of the octave, played in ascending order

38

what does a sharp symbol indicate

the note should be raised

39

what does a flat symbol indicate?

the note should be lowered

40

what are the notes g# and Ab, which are identical in pitch referred to as?

enharmonic

41

how many pitches does a diatonic scale contain

seven

42

why is the seventh pitch in a scale called the leading tone

it begs to resolve upward to the tonic pitch

43

what is the role of the tonic pitch

acts as a point or repose and completion

44

dominant pitch

the fifth scale degree

45

performance practice

a study of how music actually sounded when it was written

46

interval

the distance between two pitches

47

what unit of measurement is used to describe an interval

half step or semitone

48

What is the highest note of a triad known as?

the fifth

49

melodic interval

two pitches played consecutively

50

what is the interval between c and g ascending

perfect fifth

51

what is the interval between a and c ascending

minor third

52

what is the interval between f and b ascending

tritone

53

what is the interval between ^6 and ^7 in a major scale

whole step

54

What determines the number of beats per second created by two interfering sound waves?

the number of beats per second created by two interfering sound waves is equal to the difference in frequency between the two waves (f1 - f2 = bps).

55

what is the interval between ^2 and ^3 in a major scale

whole step

56

what are the 3 varieties of minor scale

natural, melodic and harmonic

57

hat scale degree is always lowered in a minor scale

^3

58

how does harmonic minor differ from natural minor

the seventh scale degree is raised in harmonic minor

59

relative major and minor

major and minor scales that use the same pitches, but different tonics

60

parallel major and minor

major and minor scales that contain the same pitches

61

andante

at a walking pace

62

which scale degrees can be lowered in a blues scale

^3 and ^5

63

melody

a series of successive pitches perceived but the ear ti firm a whole cohesive

64

how many pitches can occur simultaneously in a melody

1

65

what is the fastest tempo

presto

66

what is the slowest tempo

lento or grave

67

andante

at a walking pace

68

what other name is used to refer to a full cadence?

authentic cadence

69

on what harmony does half cadence rest?

the dominant

70

theme

a set of phrases making up a complete melody which figures prominently in a piece of music

71

how does the sequence differ from repitition?

in sequence, the repetition occurs at varying pitch levels

72

what symbols are used to label complete sections of MUSICAL FORM IN A DIAGRAM?

capital letters

73

what TWO contrasting elements must a listener be able to recognize in musical variation?

continuity and alteration

74

what symbol is used to denote a variation on a theme?

a "prime" mark added to the same capital letter used for the theme

75

what meter is generally used for a twelve-bar blues?

duple

76

What THREE harmonies appear in a standard twelve-bar blues?

I, IV, and V (tonic, predominant and dominant)

77

How is contrast used in ternary form?

There is a contrasting middle section between the similar first and last sections.

78

What kind of cadence is used to end each section of ternary form?

authentic cadence

79

What name is ternary form also known by?

ABA form

80

rondo form

a form made up of a multiple sections, one of which recurs

81

how does rondo form differ from ternary form?

rondo form is less structured than tenury form and allows for more and different sections

82

how long are the sections of a standard 32-bar form?

8 measures each

83

What diagram is typically used to represent a 32-bar form

AABA

84

fugue subject

a single theme developed using a counterpoint

85

countersubject

a companion theme to the fugue subject

86

imitation

the approximate repetition of a melodic idea a a different pitch level

87

what musical texture best describes a fugue?

polyphony

88

At either of what TWO intervals from an original subject does the second line of a fugue usually imitiate the subject?

a fifth higher, or a fourth lower

89

what THREE main sections make up the sonata form

exposition, development, and reacapitualition

90

how many major musical ideas are present in a sonatat?

2

91

To what key does the sonata form usually modulate for the second idea

the dominant

92

how does the exposition of a sonata form generally end?

a strong cadence in the dominant key

93

Which section form is the most harmonically unstable?

the development

94

how does the development of a sonata form generally end?

a half cadence in the dominant key

95

How does the reacapitulation differ from the exposition in the sonata form

the second msuical idea does not modulate to the dominant key in the recapitulation

96

movements

shorter, distinct pieces that make up a longer work

97

what pattern of tempos usually appears in four-movemet, but not three-movement, sonata cycles?

a dance-like "minuet and trio" movement

98

performance practice

a study of how music actually

99

In a sound wave, what is the difference between compression and rarefaction?

A sound wave moving through the air causes pressure changes. Compression refers to the space where air pressure is increased, while rarefaction is the area where air pressure is decreased. One cycle of compression and rarefaction creates a complete sound wave.

100

What is a "period" as it relates to the physics of sound?

A period is the length of time that a sound wave takes to complete one cycle of compression and rarefaction creates a complete sound wave.

101

What physical property of a sound wave determines its pitch?

The frequency of the sound determines its pitch.

102

What physical property of sound does frequency measure?

Frequency measures the rate of the vibrations of a sound in hertz.

103

What is the unit of measurement for frequency, and for whom is it named?

The unit is named after Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist; hertz measures the frequency of a sound wave in cycles per second. One hertz is one cycle per second.

104

In what way does a change in the frequency of a sound after its ptch?

Higher frequencies correspond to higher pitches, and lower frequencies correspond to lower pitches.

105

Who is believed to have first discovered that musical pitches are related to each other by specific ratios?

Pythagoras

106

Notes that are separated by an octave are how many half steps apart?

Two notes an octave apart are separated by 12 half steps.

107

What is the ratio between the frequencies of two notes that are separated by one octave?

2:1

108

If a given note has a frequency of 440 Hz, what is the frequency of a note that is one octave higher?

880 Hz (440 x 2)

109

In modern Western music, what is the standard frequency used in most orchestras of the tuning note A4?

440 Hz

110

How many pitches are contained in one octave of a chromatic scale?

One octave of the chromatic scale consists of 12 pitches spaced fairly evenly throughout the octave. If these pitches have been obtained by precisely dividing the frequencies between the two octave notes, then the scale has been tuned with equal temperament.

111

What is a "sound envelope"?

"Sound envelope" is the term used to describe the lifespan of a sound.

112

What are the three parts of the sound envelope?

The sound envelope consists of the attack, sustain, and decay of a sound.

113

What creates the attack of a note?

The attack is caused by the initial resistance of the instrument to the force causing the sound vibrations, such as the movement of a bow on a string.

114

What is happening to the wave during the decay of a sound?

The decay of a sound is created by the decrease in force and amplitude of the vibrations of the wave.

115

What is amplitude?

Amplitude is the distance that a wave moves from its equilibrium position while vibrating.

116

What is intensity?

Intensity is a measure of the power, or energy per second, of a sound wave as it vibrates.

117

How are amplitude and intensity similar?

Amplitude and intensity both affect the volume of a sound wave as it is perceived by the ear.

118

What is the relationship between amplitude and frequency?

Ideally, there is none. A strict change in the frequency of a pitch will not change its amplitude, and vice versa.

119

Describe the amplitude and frequency of a note that is low-pitched and loud.

The low pitch is a result of a low frequency, and the loudness a result of a high amplitude.

120

What unit is used to measure amplitude?

decibel (dB)

121

From what scientist does the decibel take its name?

A decibel is one-tenth of a bel, which is named after Aexander Graham Bel..

122

What does a measurement in decibels indicate?

A measurement in decibels gives the ratio between the intensities of two different sounds

123

What is the decibel measurement for the human threshold of hearing?

0 dB

124

Why is the measurement of 120 dB significant?

An amplitude of 120 dB is the human threshold of pain.

125

What does the term "dynamics" refer to?

Dynamics describe the different volumes in a piece of music such as forte or pianissimo.

126

What language is used for indicating dynamics in music?

Italian

127

Put the following terms in order according to the level of volume that they indicate, from softest to loudest: forte, mezzo piano, pianissimo, fortissimo, piano, mezzo forte

pianissimo, piano, mezzo piano, mezzo forte, forte, fortissimo

128

What is the difference between a crescendo and decrescendo?

A crescendo indicates a gradual increase in the volume of music; a decrescendo indicates a gradual decrease in the volume of music.

129

What is timbre?

Timbre refers to the qualities of a sound that distinguish it from another sound of the same pitch and volume. Timbre is also known as "tone color."

130

What are harmonics?

Harmonics, or overtones, are the pitches above the fundamental that occur naturally when a sound is produced.

131

what is the interval between a fundamental pitch and its first overtone?

The first harmonic, or overtone, is exactly one octave higher than its fundamental pitch.

132

What type of sound does a sine wave represent?

A sine wave represents the sound wave of a note with no overtones.

133

What sort of wave is used to represent a pitch that is heard with only odd overtones?

A square wave.

134

What sort of overtones are present in a sawtooth wave?

A sawtooth waveform is used to indicate a pitch that is heard with all of its overtones.

135

Name three factors that affect the sound spectrum of an instrument

The sound spectrum is affected by the frequency of the fundamental; the number, distribution, and intensity of the overtones; and the interactions between the harmonics themselves.

136

What cause interference?

The overlap of multiple simultaneous sound waves

137

What is constructive interference?

constructive interference occurs when simultaneous sound waves "in phase";: they match up trough to trough and crest to crest, resulting in an amplitude that is the sum of all of the individual amplitudes.

138

What is the product of constructive interference?

Constructive interference results in a sound wave with an amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of its component waves.

139

What causes destructive interference?

Destructive interference occurs when two interacting waves are "out of phase": they are not perfectly aligned.

140

What is the result of destructive interference?

Destructive interference fully or at least partially cancels out the amplitudes of its component waves.

141

What causes beats?

Beats are caused by the interference between sound waves that are cycling between being out of phase, (which decreases the amplitude) and in phase (which increases the amplitude).

142

What determines the number of beats per second created by two interfering sound waves?

the number of beats per second created by two interfering sound waves is equal to the difference in frequency between the two waves (f1 - f2 = bps).

143

diatonic

within the key

144

Which scale degrees correspond to major triads in a major key

1,4,5

145

which scale degrees correspond to minor triads in a major key

2,3,6

146

why does the dominant triad resolve to the tonic

it contains both the fifth scale degree and the leading tone

147

predominant harmonies

harmonies that pull to the dominant chord

148

on which scale degrees are the most common predominant harmonies based

2,4

149

what is the most common chord progression

predominant, dominant, tonic

150

how is the smoother voice leading created

by inverting chords so that each layer of the chord progression is conjunct

151

what scale degrees make up a dominant seventh chord

5,7,2,4

152

why does the dominant seventh chord have such a strong to pull to resolve

it contains a tritone

153

what is the strongest ending for a bass line

5 to 1

154

what are the most embellishments of a triad

adding a sixth seventh or ninth above the root

155

what distinguishes complex harmony from simple harmony

complex harmony uses more chromatic pitches

156

what does it mean for a piece of music to modulate

change keys

157

what is the name of schoenbergs system of pitch relationships

the twelve tone method

158

polytonality

using two keys simultaneously

159

texture

the number of things going on in a piece of music

160

what are the four types of texture in music

monophony, heterophony, homophony, and polyphony

161

monophony

music consisting of a single unaccompanied melodic line

162

what are the components of homophonic music

melody and harmony

163

polyphony

two or more melodies unfolding at the same time

164

what is the name of the technique used by western composers to produce polyphony

counterpoint

165

melodies in the counterpoint

melodies with the same beat and harmonic progression

166

instrumentation

the instrument or combination of instruments used in a piece

167

why is it difficult to determine the pitch of a church bell

bells produce very strong overtones

168

why does a clarinet produce a clear note with little ambiguity in pitch

only strong overtones reproduce the pitch being overplayed

169

instrument attributes determining its timbre

the material form which it is made and the amount of resonance

170

dynamics

the loudness and softness of a sound

171

pianissisimo

as softly as possible

172

fortississimo

as loudly as possible

173

crescendo

a gradual increase in dynamics

174

decrescendo or diminuendo

a gradual decrease in dynamics

175

mp

mezzopiano

176

ff

fortissimo

177

articulation

the mechanics of starting and ending a sound

178

staccato

short detached notes

179

what part of the mouth does a woodwind player use to create a staccato effect

his tongue

180

legato

notes that are played in a smooth connected manner

181

bouncing the bow or plucking the string(pizzicato)

violin techniques used to produce staccato

182

what is the difference between staccato and an accent

an accent has a more sudden beginning and does not require separation before the next note

183

ornamentation

localized embellishments, often unwritten

184

symbol for staccato

a dot placed under or over the note head

185

symbol for legato

a curved line connecting multiple note heads

186

tenuto

notes that are stressed without force

187

symbol for tenuto

a horizontal line under or over the note head

188

form

the organization of a piece of music on a larger scale

189

what two visual representations are used to express musical form

scores and diagrams

190

tension and release

complementary elements shape to a chord progression or melody

191

what method is the primary way to create tension in music

harmonic dissonance

192

motive

smalleest identifiable recurring musical idea

193

phrase

cohesive musical thought

194

antecedent and consequence phrases

the two members of a related pair of phrases

195

cadence

a resting point in a piece of music

196

a melody that moves primarily in intervals larger than a minor second

disjunct melody

197

the high, middle , and low parts of an instruments' range

register

198

what is the distinguishing feature of a melody with a high tessitura?

it calls for many notes in the high register of an instrument's range

199

the way music is organized in time

rhythm

200

the steady pulse that underlies most music

beat

201

the speed of the beat

tempo

202

the tempo of a piece slowing down

ritardondo

203

the tempo of a piece speeding up

accelerando

204

a piece f music with no beat

unmetered music

205

a piece of music iwth a beat that speeds up or slows down for expressive purposes

rubato

206

which beat of a musical measure is strongest?

the first, also called the downbeat

207

the pattern of emphasis superimposed on groups of beats

meter

208

a group of beats

a measure, or bar

209

music with groups of 2 or 4 beats

duple meter

210

a note that falls before the downbeat of the first measure

pickup, or anacrusis

211

What THREE elements of notation indicate the duration of a note?

the note head, the flags on the stem, and dots

212

How many numbers do time signatures contain?

2

213

what does the top number of a time signature represent

the number of beats in a measure

214

what does the bottom number of a time signiture represent?

how long one beat is

215

a beat with a triple subdivision

compound meter

216

measures with different meters occurring in succession

mixed meter

217

two or more meters occurring simultaneously

polymeter

218

emphasizing notes that fall on weak beats or in between beats

syncopation

219

two or more conflicting rhythmic patterns occurring simultaneously

polyrhythm

220

two or more tones sounding simultaneously

harmony

221

the system used in western cultures to organize pitch and harmony

common practice tonality

222

3 or more

how many notes must there be in a chord

223

a three note chord up of two intervals of a third

triad

224

what are the FOUR types of triad

major, minor, diminished, and augmented

225

in ascending order, what intervals make up a major triad?

a major third and a minor third

226

in ascending order, what intervals make up a minor triad?

a minor third and a major third

227

in ascending order, what intervals make up a diminished triad?

a major third and a major third

228

what is the lowest note of a triad known as?

the root

229

WHAT IS THE HIGHEST NOTE OF A TIRAD KNOWN AS??????????????????????????

the fifth

230

Under what circumstance can the human ear not hear beats?

Beats cannot be detected by the human ear if they become too fast. If two interfering pitches are far apart in frequency, there will be too many beats per second for the ear to perceive them.

231

What scientist extensively studied the frequencies of interfering waves and the beats they produce?

Hermann von Helmholtz

232

According to Helmholtz, which three ratios between frequencies and corresponding intervals create the "smoothest" sounds?

1:1 (two notes of the same pitch), 1:2 (an octave(, 2:3 (a fifth)

233

What is the difference between consonance and dissonance?

Consonance occurs when interacting pitches and their overtones are complementary so do not produce audible beats; dissonance is when overtones clash with one another and create beats.

234

In addition to harmonics and beats, what quality of a n instrument affects its timbre?

The material of which the instrument is constructed affects its timbre.

235

When a material is forced into vibrating at one of its naturally occurring frequencies, what do we call this response?

resonance

236

what is polyphone

polyphonic music inclues two or more separate melodies occurring simultaneously

237

what term is used to describe the texture of music that has a single melody accompanied by music hat is written in the same key as the primary melody

homophony

238

what is heterophony

heterophopnic music features a single meoldy that is played in slightly different forms by multiple voices or instruments at the same time

239

describe homorhythmic texture

homorhythmic texture occurs when the accompanying parts have the same rhythm as the primary melody

240

what is polyrhythmic teutre

occurs when two or more lines of music with differen meters are played simultaneously

241

what is form

the term used to refer to the overall framework or organization of a piece of music

242

what is the form of a piece of music that has two or more distinct sections

compound form

243

name the musical form that consists of ovements inspired by dances

a suite

244

what is an open form

in which a sectionor piece ends unresolved or in a key other than the ones in which it behan

245

what is close form

a piece written in closed form features a definite resolution and a sense of closure; it ends o nthe tonic of the key in which it began

246

wehat textural and melodic similarities exist between a fugue and a motet

both feauture extensive polyphony and melodic repetition

247

ethnomusicology

the study or comparitive study of the music of other cultures

248

why does an arbitary dropped object not produce a pitch?

its sound wave is short and irregular

249

what THREE techniques are used to make the strings of chordophones vibrate?

plucking, bowing or striking the strings

250

What frequencey describes the pitch A played one ctave lower than A -440

A-220

251

fundamental harmonic

the loudesr and strongest pitch produced by asound wave

252

what note is the enharmonic equivalent of C#

Db

253

what note is the enharmonic equivalent of Bb

A#

254

what note is the dominant equivalent of G

D

255

which triad inversion has the third on the bottom?

first inversion

256

a triad with the root position note at the bottom

root position

257

the set of pitch relationships in which a piece or section of a piece of music occurs

key

258

what pitch determines the name and gravitational center of a key?

the tonic pitch

259

whcih scale degrees stermine whether a key is major or minor

^3 ^6 and 7^

260

chromatic pitches

pitches that are not within the key of a piece of music

261

a set of accidentals that indicate the key

key signiture

262

Define rhythm.

Rhythm is the ordering and grouping of sounds and silences through time.

263

What term is used to refer to the basic pulse of music?

beat

264

What happens to the beats of a piece if the tempo increases?

An increase in tempo means the music moves faster, causing the beats to come closer together in time.

265

What is the difference between tempo and meter?

Tempo merely measures how fast the beat is while meter refers to the rhythmic groupings of stressed and unstressed beats.

266

what note is the dominant pitch in the key of g?

D

267

what note is the dominant pitch in the key of Bb

F

268

'what note is the dominant pitch in the key of D#

A#

269

What note is the leading tone in the key of A

G#

270

What note is the leading tone in the key of f

E

271

what is the term for the form of a song that contains several unique sections without repetition

through composed

272

wat interval occurs between F and G#

augmented second

273

what interval occurs between ^6 and raised ^7 in a harmonic minor scale?

augmented second

274

which minor scale changes its pitches when played descending?

melodic

275

how much larger than an octave is a minor ninth

a minor second

276

how much larger than an octave is a major tenth

a major third

277

how many half steps does a major ninth contain

14

278

what does a key signature that includes a D flat imply?

the pitch of D will automatically be lowered for the rest of the piece

279

how many accidentals are there in the key of c?

none

280

how many and what type of accidental are there in the key of F?

1 flat

281

How many and what type of accidentals are there in the key of G?

1 sharp

282

how many and what type of accidentals are there in the key of E?

4 sharps

283

the quality of a pitch, interval, or chords that makes it seem suitable for rest or resolution

consonance

284

an interval made up of three whole steps

tritone

285

according to USAD, what instruments are included in a typical jazz band?

clarinet, trumpet, trombone, saxophone, piano, double bass, and percussion

286

in order from highest to lowest, what are the strings of a cello

a3, d3, g2, c2, the same letters as a viola but an octave lower

287

What is a diatonic scale?

A diatonic scale is a scale that uses notes from the chromatic scale, but contains only seven notes per octave. For example, the major and minor scales are types of diatonic scales.

288

what is the typical range of the alto voice?

G3 to D5, +/- one or two notes

289

what is periodization?

periodization is the process of dividing history into specific memorably segments

290

who first used the term renaissance

Jules Michelet, a 19th century french historian

291

Who wrote the Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy?

Jacob Burkhardt, a 19th century Swiss historian

292

What are the most common meters in Western music?

duple meter (groups of two beats) and triple meter (groups of three beats)

293

What is the difference between simple and compound meter?

A simple meter is one in which each beat is divided in half; in compound meter, beats are divided into groups of three.

294

What is a downbeat?

A downbeat is the first beat of a measure. It is almost always an accented beat.

295

Music notation must provide at least what two important pieces of information about the work?

Music notation must clearly indicate the pitches of the notes and their durations.

296

What elements of Wester musical notation are used to indicate pitch?

The clef and the placement of notes on the stuff indicate the desired pitches.

297

What elements of musical notation indicate the duration and rhythm of notes?

The appearance and shape of the notes and the different symbols used to indicate rests indicate the intended rhythm and duration of notes.

298

Who created the system of musical notation upon which the modern Western system is based?

Franco of Cologne (13th Century)

299

What do rests indicate?

Rests indicate that there should be a silence of a certain length in the music.

300

What is syncopation?

Syncopation occurs when beats are stressed at unexpected or unusual times.

301

What does a 5/8 time signature indicate?

A 5/8 time signature means that there are five (5) beats per measure and that the eighth (8) note receives one beat.

302

How does a note change if a dot is added next to it?

A dot next to a note indicates that the duration of the note equals the length of the original note plus half its length. For example, a dotted eighth note has the length of an eighth note plus a sixteenth note.

303

In what unit is tempo usually measured?

Tempo is usually measured in beats per minute.

304

What is the difference between the terms adagio and allegro?

both adagio and allegro are terms that indicate; however, adagio means "slow" while allegro means "fast."

305

What does the tempo marking "maestoso" mean?

"majestically"

306

What is melody?

Melody refers to a series of pitches that form a cohesive tune.

307

How are notes on the staff named?

Notes on the staff are named using the letters A through g.

308

What is another name for the treble clef?

G clef

309

What is another name for the bass clef?

F Clef

310

The second line from the bottom of a treble-clef staff is a

G

311

What is the grand staff?

The grand staff includes both the treble and bass clef staffs so that a wide range of pitches can be seen at once.

312

What is a scale?

A scale is a sequence

313

what textural and melodic similarities exist between a fugue and a motet

both feature extensive polyphony and melodic repetition

314

how many sections does a piece of binary from contain

two

315

what is the typical chord progression within sections in binary form

the first section moves from the tonic to the dominant; the second section moves from the dominant back to the tonic

316

how is rounded binary form different from simple binary form

in rounded binary form, the first section returns to the tonic in a slightly modified way after the second section, thus creating the a section, in simple binary the b section contains the return to the tonic

317

what is the differenve between ternary form and rounded binary form

ternary form has three sections. the third section is identical to the first whereas rounded binary form includes a return if the A section in a modified form

318

what is the structure of a rondo

a rondo contains one section that alternates with at least two other sections, creating the structure abacada

319

what is the name of the binary form most common in american popular music

verse/chorus or verse/ refrain

320

what is a bridge

a bridge is a unique section added to a binary form song, typically before the last refrain

321

how does the inclusion of a bridge add to the musical complexity of binary form

the bridge is typically written in the dominant, which increases the musical tension of the work before returning to the tonic in the final chorus

322

what is the term for the form of a song that contains several unique sections without repetition

through composed

323

mozarts" ah, vous dirais-je maman" takes the well known tune of "Twinkle twinkle little star" and repeats it again and again in many different forms, so its form is that of

theme and variations

324

what are the three sections of a work written in sonata form

exposition, development, and recapitulation

325

what is the purpose of the exposition in sonata form

the exposition serves to introduce the main theme or themes of the piece in the tonic key

326

in what key does the development of a piece in sonata form typically end

the dominant

327

what is the purpose of the recapitulation in sonata form

the recapitulation restates the main theme of the piece, often with variation

328

what is a coda

a coda is a final section in a piece that gives it a formal sense of closure by emphasizing dominant harmonies and their resolution to the tonic one last time

329

what chords or keys are typically accentuated in the coda

the coda typically focuses on the subdominant or dominant harmonies and then resolves to the tonic key

330

during what two musical eras was the sonata form most popular

classical and romantic

331

a piece that begins with an opening themes, modulates through a number of different keys and ends with a restatement of the opening theme is in what form

sonata form

332

along with binary form, what other form has had a significant influence upon most american popular music

12 bar blues

333

what is the alphabetic structure of 12 bar blues

aab:the first four bars (A) are repeated (A) and then resolved by a contrasting four-bar section (B)

334

in typical 12 bar blues, how many measures long is each phrase

each of the three phrases in the 12 bar blues progression is four measures or bars long

335

what is the typical chord progression of the third phrase of 12 bar blues

1,4,5,1

336

what combination of instruments is usually responsible for creating the timbre we associate with country music

fiddle, acoustic guitar, steel guitar, and banjo

337

What is a diatonic scale?

A diatonic

338

What is the sequence of whole and half steps of a major scale?

Major scales all follow the following sequence: whole, whole, half, whole whole, whole, half. Thus the half steps fall between the third and fourth notes of the scale and between the seventh and eighth.

339

What is the name of the first note in a scale?

The first note in a scale is called the tonic.

340

The dominant represents what scale degree?

The dominant is the fifth note in a major or minor scale.

341

What is the significance of the seventh note in a scale?

The seventh note is known as the leading tone because it creates a musical tension that seems to "lead" the ear to the tonic note.

342

In a D major scale, what are the letter names of the dominant and leading tones?

In a D major scale, A is the dominant and C# is the leading tone.

343

what word is used two notes that are notated differently according to the key in which they occur but that are, in fact, the same note

enharmonic

344

how and why is the circle of fifths constructed

the circles of fifths is constructed by starting with C and ascending by fifths until C is again reached. they key C has no sharps or flats in it. Each subsequent key in the circle of fifths has one more sharp than the previous key

345

how does the ascending melodic minor scale differ from the descending melodic minor scale

in the ascending scale the sixth and seventh notes are raised a half step in comparison to the natural minor scale. in the descending scale, the sicth and seventh notes re not raised, making it identical to the natual minor scale

346

in order form highest to lowest pitch, what are the three ranges of the female voice

soprano, mezzo soprano, and alto

347

in order form lowest to highest pitch, what are the three ranges of the male voice

bass, baritone, and tenor

348

what is the another name for the alto voice range

contralto

349

although the alto and tenor voice ranges overlap greatly in pitch, how do they differ

though overlapping in pitch range alto and tenor parts are distinct from each other because the physiology of the female and male voices give each one a unique timbre

350

according to the system developed in the nineteenth century, what instrumental characteristic determines its classification

instruments are classified according to what sort of vibrating medium creates their sound

351

what are the five instrumental classification groups

idiophones, membranophones, aerophones, chordophones, and electrophones

352

how is sound created on a chordophone

chordophones create vibration by the movement of strings which can be either bowed, plucked, or struck

353

what modern chordophones are played with a bow

violin, viola, cello, and bass

354

in addition to the strings, what components of a bowed chordophone allow the instrument to vibrate

in addition to the strings, the bridge and the sound post are essential in causing vibration by transmitting the vibrations from the strings into the body of the instrument, where they can be amplified and projected

355

What is the difference between conjunct and disjunct melodies?

Conjunct melodies include notes that are mostly next to or close to each other on the staff, where as disjunct melodies feature greater distances between consecutive notes.

356

What is the role of harmony in music?

Harmony, the addition of chords or other notes to the main melody, is intended to complement the primary melody.

357

What is a chord?

A chord has three or more notes that are played at the same time.

358

What is a triad?

A triad is a chord which includes a root note and the notes that are a third and a fifth above the root.

359

What is the name of a triad that features the first note of a scale as its root?

A tonic chord

360

What shorthand method is used to indicate chord progression in a piece of music?

Roman numerals are used to number chords within a scale; chord progressions are described using these Roman numerals.

361

What is one of the most common chord progressions in American folk and rock music?

I-IV-V-I

362

What is a cadence?

A cadence is a chord progression that conveys a feeling of resolution, used at the end of musical phrases or pieces.

363

What is the name for a cadence that ends on a dominant chord?

A half cadence

364

What is a plagal cadence?

In a plagal cadence, a subdominant chord is played directly before the final tonic chord. The "Amen" at the end of church hymns is an example of a plagal cadence.

365

A cadence that conveys the greatest sense of closure ends on what chord?

the tonic (I)

366

What types of popular music first began to use "passing chords"?

Early blues, jazz, and tin Pan alley composers expanded on the classic I-IV-V-I progression by adding passing chords.

367

In a bb major scale, what is the subdominant note?

Eb

368

What defines music with a monophonic texture?

Monophonic music features a single line of melody, unaccompanied by any additional melodies or harmonies.

369

the song america contains no internal repetition, so its form is

through composed

370

name three chordophones on which strings are plucked rather than bowed

although there are others, the basic guide mentions the guitar, lute, harp, and zither

371

what three factors affect the way a string sounds

the sound of a string is affected by its material, thickness and length

372

what is the relationship between the thickness of a string and its pitch range

the thicker the string, the lower the pitch range will be

373

how does length affect the pitch range of a string

longer strings will have a lower pitch range than shorter strings

374

about how long is a full size violin

35.5

375

in order from highest to lowest, what notes are associated with each of the four strings of violin

E5, A4, D4, G3

376

what are f holes

the curved holes are on the tops of bowed chordophone instruments that allow the vibrations to travel outward beyond the instruments hollow boddy

377

what is the range of lengths for typical violas

violas can range in length from 38 to 40 cm

378

in order from highest to lowest, what are the notes of the strings on a viola

a4, d4, g3, c3

379

where is the viola held when it is played

like the violin, held under the chin of the left shoulder

380

what is the difference between a cello and a violoncello

there is no difference, its another name for cello

381

how long is the body of a cello

74 ti 76 cm

382

how does one hold a cello when playing it

the body of a cello is held between the legs, supported by an endpin which rests on the ground

383

in order from highest to lowest, what are the strings of a cello

a3,

384

what is the average range of a vibraphone

the pitches of vibraphone bars range form f2 to a6

385

what is another name for the tubular bells

the tubular bells are also known as orchestral bells or chimes

386

what is the only bar instrument that is struck vertically

tubular bells

387

what are some examples of non barred metallophones

the triangle, cymbals, gong, and anvil are examples of non barred metallophones

388

which instrument has a greater range: the xylophone or the marimba

the marimba has a greater range from a2 to c7. the xylophones range is from f3 to c7

389

what are some examples of unpitched percussion instruments

there are numerous examples but USAD lists the following: gongs, wood blocks, castanets, shakers, maracas, slap sticks, cowbells, and jingle bells

390

Why did USAD choose 1450 as the beginning of the musical Renaissance

1450 is the year the Guillaume Du fay finished his polyphonic Missa Se la face ay ale, a piece that broke away from the previous polyphonic traditions.

391

according to USAD, i what year did monody first appear?

1600

392

what is the italian translation for the word renaissance

rebirth

393

in what year did the roman empire fall

476AD

394

In what main city of what empire were many ancient greek and roman texts stored after the fall of the roman empire and prior to the renaissance

ancient sources were kept in libraries located in the byzantine empire in cities such as constantinople

395

when did the city of constantinople fall

1453

396

what is a renaissance man

a renaissance an is one who pursues many subjects and fields from art to mathematics. The renaissance an was not necessarily an actual person nit rather an ideal that many strove to emulate

397

which two nations were primarily involved in the hundred years war

england and france

398

during which years did the hundred years war take place

1337-1453

399

name three of the seven explorers mentioned by USAD whose discoveries helped encourage the economic growth and prosperity of Europe during the renaissance

any of the following are correct, vasco da gama of portugal, pedro cabral of portugal, francisoco pizzaro of spain, hernando de soto of spain, juan ponce de leon of spain, amerigo vespucci of italy, and chirstopher columbus of italy.

400

what kind of contour describes the melody of "The Star Spangle Banner?"

disjunct

401

Whit kind of contour describes the melody of "Row, Row, Row Your Boat?"

conjunct

402

How many flags denote sixteenth notes in rhythmic notation?

2

403

How does a half note differ from a quarter note in rhythmic notation?

The note head of the half note is not filled in.

404

In rhythmic notation, how does a whole note differ from a half note?

The whole note does not have a stem

405

How many eighth notes make up a whole note?

8

406

How many sixteenth notes make up a quarter note?

4

407

How many sixteenth notes make up a dotted half note?

12

408

What rhythmic change is denoted by a small dot next to the head of a note?

add half of the note's original value to itself.

409

How many beats does a dotted whole note contain?

6

410

How many beats does a dotted quarter note contain?

1.5

411

subito

a change executed suddenly

412

poco a poco

a change executed gradualy

413

most drums fall under what instrumental classification

most drums are membranophones

414

what factors affect the sound of a drum

the material and size of the drum and its membrane affect the sound of the drum

415

what type of drum has pitches that can be adjusted using a foot pedal

a timpani

416

what type of drum has a 36 inch frame covered with two drumheads

an orchestral bass drum

417

what characteristic of the snare drum makes it different than all other drums

snare drums have metal snares or string attached to them that vibrate when the drum is hit

418

how do aerophones create sound

in aerophones, sound is created by the vibration of a column of air inside the instrument

419

name two instruments that are played by blowing air across the opening of a column

flute piccolo or recorder

420

what is a reed

a eed is a piece of can wood that is carved and inserted into the mouthpiece of some woodwind instruments. it vibrates as the instrument is played

421

name two single reed instruments

clarinet saxophone

422

name two double reed instruments

oboe and bassoon

423

what is the difference between the flute and the piccolo

the piccolo is smaller than the flute and has a higher range

424

what material is the clarinet made out of

african or brazilian blackwood

425

what is another name for the double bass

string bass or upright lower

426

how long is the body of a double bass

180-200 cn

427

in order from highest to lowest, what are the strings of a double bass

g2, d2, a1, e1

428

how many strings does an orchestral harp

47

429

what is the tonal range of a concert harp

c1 to g#7

430

why is the piano considered a chordophone

the piano is classified as a chordophone bc it creates sound by the vibration of strings which are struck by small hammers

431

what are the 3 classifications of percussion instruments

membranophones idiophones and metallophones

432

what is the primary purpose of percussion instruments in most ensembles

their function is usually to add to the rhythmic complexity of the piece or to keep the beat rather than to add to the melody or harmony

433

what is the difference between an idiophone and a membranophone

membranophones are percussion instrumentes that feature a taut membrane that is struck to create a sound. idiophones are instruments such as shakers that lack a membrane

434

what are at least three examples if pitched bar instruments

vibraphone, tubular bells, glockenspiel, xylophone, or marimba

435

what two woods can a bassoon be made form

maple or rosewood

436

what is the lowest sounding instrument in the orchestra

the contrabassoon, with a range from B 60 to E4

437

what creates sound in brass instruments

brass instrument produce sound via the vibration of the players lips against the mouthpiece

438

what is the smallest brass instrument

trumpet

439

in what way is the trombone unlike other brass instruments

unlike other brass instruments which uses valves to control pitch the trombone uses a long slide

440

what instruments make up the low brass section of an orchestra

trombone tuba and sometimes a euphonium and a baritone

441

what sort of aerophones are not played using human lung power

pipe organs

442

how many violin sections are there in a traditional orchestral setup

two

443

what instruments are included in a standard wind quintet

flute oboe clarinet bassoon and horn

444

What symbol denotes a second inversion triad?

a 6 and 4 stacked vertically after the chord symbol

445

What TWO scales require an F# in the key signature?

G major and E mnor

446

How many key signatures are possible in common practice tonality?

12

447

What TWO keys require a Bb in the key signature?

F major and D minor

448

What accidentals are required in the key signature of Bb?

A Bb and Eb

449

How many keys are possible?

24

450

Why are there only a limited number of possible keys?

Every key must preserve the sequence of half and whole steps required by the scale.

451

what kind of triad is built on ^7 of a major scale?

diminished

452

What symbols are used to describe chords?

Roman numerals

453

What TWO chord progressions consist of predominant dominant tonic?

Iv_V-I or ii-V-I

454

What harmonic role does the added seventh play in a dominant seventh chord?

It exerts an additional pull to the tonic.

455

Modal mixture

Altering pitches of the basic triad

456

nonfunctional harmony

using chords from common-practice tonality without resolving them

457

what two beats are generally weakest in duple mete?

2 and 4

458

what two bears are generally strongest in duple meter

1 and 3

459

what separates measures on the staff

bar lines

460

what beats of the measure must be aligned for two simultaneous meters to form a polymeter

downbeats

461

what name is irregular meter known as

asymmetrical meter

462

what name polyrhythm also know by

cross rhythm

463

what are the two most common polyrhythms

2 against 3 and 3 against 4

464

including root position, how many triad inversions are possible

3

465

what symbol denotes a first inversion triad

a 6 written after the chord symbol

466

arranging

giving instructions to what each individual performance should play based on an existing piece of music

467

which harmonic role corresponds to a seventh chord built from ^7

dominant

468

which note of a triad can be omitted without interfering with the harmony

the fifth

469

what tradition forms the basis of blues music

rural african american oral tradition

470

emotion most characteristic of the blues

sadness

471

blue notes

flattened, bent, or shaded notes on ^3 ^5 and ^7

472

how can a pianist play blue notes that lie between piano keys

using crushed notes by playing two adjacent notes at once

473

why is western notation unable to capture the nuances of the blues

much of blues is improvisational

474

at which part of the form does a line of blue lyrics generally end

midway through a four bar section

475

ring shout

a slavery era religious tradition involving improvisation, call and response, and movement

476

which two cultural contexts did the ring shout combine

african and american