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What is the broadest definition of music?

Sound organized in time

1

What is it called when composition and performance happen simultaneously?

Improvisation

2

What is required to create music?

A time frame, sound waves and a cognizant mind to perceive and interpret those sounds

3

What does the amplitude affect?

The decibel level or how loud or soft the tone is

4

What is the pitch?

The higher or lowness of the sound

5

What can a normal human ear hear?

20 to 20,000 cycles per second

6

What does orchestral musicians in the United States usually tune their instruments to?

440 hz

7

What are two kinds of music sounds?

Pitched and non pitched

8

What instruments provide most of the no-pitched sounds in music?

Percussion instruments

9

What two musicians organized instruments into four groups?

Curt Sachs and Erich von Hornbostel

10

What are the four instrumental groups?

Chordophones, Aerophones, Membranophones, idiophones and later electrophones

11

What instruments make up chordophones?

Violins, harps and guitars which have one or more strings; plucked, bowed, or struck

12

What instruments are in Aerophones?

brass and wind instruments such as horns and flutes that feature a vibrating column of air

13

What is a Membranophone?

Any instrument that has a skin or other membrane stretched across some kind of frame and the skins vibrates when struck

14

What are examples of Idiophones?

When the body of the instrument itself vibrates when struck such as bells, woodblocks and xylophones

15

What instrumental category was added after the discovery of electricity?

Electrophones

16

How did were Western musical instruments grouped before Sachs and Hornbostel?

Into families

17

What are the five families of instruments?

Strings, Brass instruments, Woodwind instruments, percussion instruments, keyboard instruments

18

What are string instruments?

Instruments that are bowed or plucked

19

What are Brass instruments?

Aerophones in which the column of air is moved by breath alone

20

What are Percussion instruments

Membranophones as well a s idiophones plus some chordophones that are struck rather than bowed or plucked such as the piano

21

What are keyboard instruments?

A fifth category of instruments with keys

22

What is among the best known early electronic instruments?

Theramin

23

How do you play a Theramin?

The performer regulates frequency with one hand and amplitude wit the other by disturbing the electrical fields that surround the protruding bars

24

After the development of electronic instrument what was the next important step in their development?

The end of the 2nd World War

25

What is musique concrete?

When electronically generated sounds and sounds produced by live instruments were recorded on tape before being manipulated into collages to be performed

26

What cities were famous postwar centers for electronic music?

Paris, Rome, Cologne and New York City

27

A single isolated musical sound has how many properties?

Four, pitch, duration, volume and timbre

28

Pitch

The highness or lowness of a sound

29

What is the musical term for the distance between A and the next higher or lower A?

An octave

30

How are pitches arraigned on a piano?

High pitches are to the right, low pitches to the left

31

What is another term for half-step?

Semi tone

32

What is a whole step?

The distance between every other key

33

What is the lowest A note called?

The Fundamental

34

What is the Fundamental colored by?

The faint prescense of the higher pitches called partials or overtones

35

How many equal parts is an octave divided into?

Twelve

36

What are the twelve different pitches in ascending order called?

The Chromatic Scale

37

What do you call two notes that are identical in pitch?

Enharmonic pitches

38

How many phrases is most of Western music based on?

7 pitches

39

What is the most common scale?

The C major scale

40

What are the four patterns that the seven most commonly used pitches in music fall into?

major and three variations of minor

41

What is the 7th scale degree known as?

The leading tone

42

What is the resting tone in music often known as?

Tonic Pitch

43

What is the 5th scale degree called?

The dominant pitch

44

How many half steps does a whole step have?

Two

45

How many half steps does a minor third step have?

3 half steps

46

How many half steps does a major third have?

4 half steps

47

How many half steps does a perfect fourth have?

5 half steps

48

How many half steps does an augmented fourth have?

6 half steps

49

how many half steps does a perfect 5th have?

7 half steps

50

How many half steps does a minor 6th have?

8 half steps

51

How many half steps does a major sixth have?

9 half steps

52

How many half steps does a major 7th have?

11 half steps

53

How many half steps does a minor 7th have?

10 half steps

54

How many half steps are in an octave?

12 half steps

55

What is the distance between two pitches?

An interval

56

What are the two styles of intervals?

Harmonic or melodic

57

What is a harmonic interval?

The two pitches occur simultaneously

58

What is a melodic interval?

The two pitches occur in succession

59

Wha intervals are either ascending or descending?

Melodic intervals

60

What intervals exceed an octave?

The major and minor ninth and the major and minor tenth

61

What are the three different variations of minor scale?

Minor, harmonic and melodic

62

When two notes are the same pitch just different tonics what are they called?

Relative major and minor

63

What are major and minor scales that begin and end on the same tonic pitch called?

Parallel

64

What happens to degrees 3 and 7 in a blues scale?

They are lowered, left normal, or somewhere in between

65

What is a melody?

A series of successive pitches

66

What is the term for two pitches occurring at the same time?

Harmony or counterpoint

67

What do all melodies have?

A contour or profile

68

How does a conjunct melody move?

Through mostly half steps and whole steps

69

What is a common contour for melodies?

an arch

70

What are the high, middle and low parts of an instrument's range called?

The high, middle or low register

71

What is rhythm?

The way music is organized in time

72

What is a beat?

The steady pulse that undelies most music

73

What is tempo?

The speed of the beat

74

What is very fast in Italian and what is the number of beats?

Presto at 200 bpm

75

What is the Italian term for fast and number of bpm's?

Allegro 120 bpm

76

What is the Italian term for moderate and what is the bpm?

Moderato, 108 bpm

77

What is the Italian term for at walking tempo and what are the bpm's?

Andante 84 bpm

78

What is the Italian term for slow and what is the bpm?

Adagio 72 bpm

79

What is the Italian term for very slow and what is the bpm?

lento or Grave, 40 bpm

80

If there is no steady tempo what is the music said to be?

Unmetered

81

If there is a perceived beat, but it speeds up and slows down for expressive review what is it called?

Rubato

82

How are beats normally grouped?

Into measures

83

What are measures separated by?

Bar lines

84

What beat of any measure is always the strongest?

The first beat

85

What is the first beat of any measure called?

The downbeat

86

What is meter?

The pattern of emphasis superimposed on groups of beats

87

When words fall before the downbeat what are they called?

Anacrusis or pickup

88

How is meter indicated in music?

With a time signature

89

In a time signature what does the lower number indicate?

A durational value

90

What does the upper note in a time signature indicate?

How many of the durational values will occur in one measure

91

What rock song from the 1950's has a clearly articulated compound meter?

Put Your Head on My Shoulder

92

What does irregular meter feature?

Measures that have differet meters alternating in an irregular pattern

93

What is polymeter?

When two or more meters are operating simultaneously

94

What music piece is considered syncopated?

St. Louis Blues

95

What is cross-rhythm also known as?

Polyrhythm

96

What does Beat refer to?

A regular underlying pulse that is not always audible

97

How does harmony occur?

When two or more tones are sounding simultaneously

98

When was common-practice tonality codified?

By about 1750

99

What is a chord?

Three or more pitches

100

What is a triad?

A three note chord consisting of two intervals of a third

101

What is a major triad?

A three note chord that has a majo third on the bottom and a minor third on top

102

Describe a minor triad

Aminor third on the bottom and a major third above

103

What are the two least common triads?

Diminished, two minor thirds; and the augmented triad, two major thirds

104

What is the lowest note in a triad?

The root

105

What is the middle note in the triad?

The third

106

What is the highest note in the triad called?

The fifth

107

When the third of the triad is on the bottom what kind of inversion is it?

The first inversion

108

What inversion is it when the fifth is on the bottom?

It is the second inversion

109

What are the two types of accidentals?

Sharps and flats

110

How many major and minor scales are there?

12 major and 12 minor

111

What is Dissonance?

The quality of a pitch, interval, or chord that it makes it seem unstable or tese

112

What is Conssonance?

Thequality of a pitch, interval or chord that makes it seem a suitable point of rest or resolution

113

What musical piece uses dissonance?

Nacht

114

What does diatonic mean?

Within the key

115

What does the quality of a diatonic triad depend on?

Which scale degree is at its root

116

What are the most common predominant harmonies?

Supertonic and subdominant

117

What is a chain of triads called?

Chord progression

118

What is the lowest voice in a series of chords?

A bass line

119

How can harmony be made more complex?

To modulate (change keys)

120

What composer concluded that music had been so chromatic that the onnly possible next step forward was to fee dissonance from the need to resolve to the tonic?

Arnold Schoenberg

121

What two musical pieces have no tonic pitch?

Six bagatelles or nacht

122

What are the four types of texture in Western music?

Monophony, homophony, polyphony and heterophony

123

What musical piece usus heterophony?

Dippermouth Blues

124

What is among the most noticable features of a given piece of music?

Instrumentation

125

What is arranging?

The art of taking an exiting piece of music and giving instuctions as to what each individual performer should play

126

What is dynamics?

The loudness or softness of a sound

127

What does ppp stand for?

Painississimo, as quietly as possible

128

What doess pp stand for?

Pianissimo, very quietly

129

What does p stand for?

Piano, quietly

130

What does mp stand for?

mezzopiano, somewhat quietly

131

What does mf stand for?

Mezzoforte, somewhat loud

132

What does f stand for?

Forte, loud

133

What does ff stand for?

Fortissimo, very loud

134

What does fff stand for?

Fortississimo, as loudly as possible

135

What expressive factor affects the sound of piece?

Articulation

136

What is the term when the bow of the violin may be bounced from the string, or the finger used to pluck it?

Pizzicato

137

What is the primary way that tension is created?

through harmonic dissonance

138

What is the smalles unit of form?

A motive

139

What do phrases often come in?

Related pairs

140

What is the first member of a phrase pair?

The antecedent

141

What is the second member of the pair phrase?

The consequent phrase

142

What is the term for a resting point in a piece of music?

Cadence

143

What does a half cadence rest on?

The dominant harmony

144

What is a full cadence also known as?

An authentic cadence

145

What does coda mean in Italian?

Tail

146

What is a musical idea repeated at different pitch levels?

A sequence

147

What is a common way of structuring a composition?

Theme and variation

148

Who published Piano Variations?

Aaron Copland