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What are hemodynamics?

physical principles governing the pressure, flow, resistance, & compliance of the cardiovascular system.


How would you describe the circuit of the circulatory system?

Closed circuit. This means that if there is a change in flow in one area of the body, it will be compensated for in another part of the body. Ex: increased skeletal muscle flow, decreased GI flow. End sum game.


Which parts of the circulatory system are in parallel circuit & which are in series?

Parallel: blood flow to skin or GI or urinary...
Series: Pulmonary-->Systemic


Does blood that flows thru kidney capillaries do it in series or in parallel?

It does it in series. Multiple capillaries.


T/F Vascular smooth muscle (unlike skeletal muscle) has some basal tone from intrinsic factors w/o neural input.



T/F Capillaries have only a very thin layer of smooth muscle in their tunica media.

False. They only have a layer of endothelial cells & a basement membrane.


What is the equation for the velocity of blood flow?



Where does the greatest drop in pressure come?

In the transition b/w the arterioles & the capillaries.


In Graves' disease, why do you see pulsatile flow at the level of the nail beds?

B/c of arteriolar vasodilation & reduced arteriolar resistance. Pulsatile flow isn't diminshed.


What are the pulse pressures like in patients with aortic regurgitation? Heart failure? Athletes?

Aortic Regurgitation: Large SV-->large PP
Heart Failure: Small SV-->small PP
Atheletes: Large SV-->large PP


What does the pulmonary wedge pressure estimate?

The LA pressure.


What happens to vascular compliance as you age?

It lessens.
Therefore, a given increase in volume, will correspond to a greater increase in pressure.


What is athersclerosis? Arteriosclerosis?

Athersclerosis: formation of multiple plaques w/i the arteries.
Arteriosclerosis: deposition of collagen around the atheroma...hardens the arterial wall.


What is Reynold's Number?

Ng=Velocity X diameter X fluid density/fluid viscosity
Reduced hematocrit reduces blood viscosity.
Ng that is high is indicative of turbulent flow.
Ng that is low is indicative of healthy, laminar flow.