MYCOVIRO - CH 60 of book part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MYCOVIRO - CH 60 of book part 1 Deck (77):
1

Produce large, ribbon-like hyphae that contain occasional septa



MUCORALES (ZYGOMYCETES)

2

2. Have sporangia (saclike fruiting structures) that produce sporangiospores and is formed at the tip of a
supporting structure called sporangiophore

MUCORALES (ZYGOMYCETES)

3

3. Sporangiophores are connected to one another by occasionally septate hyphae called stolons, attached
to contact points where root-like structure (rhizoids) may appear and anchor the organism to the agar
surface.

MUCORALES (ZYGOMYCETES)

4

4. Commonly found on decaying vegetable matter or old bread or in soil

MUCORALES (ZYGOMYCETES)

5

- infection caused by mucorales

Mucormycosis

6

can lead to vascular invasion and rapidly produce thrombosis and tissue necrosis - perineural invasion can also occur

Mucormycosis

7

one of the most common presentation of mucormycosis

- rhinocerebral form

8

infection w/c involves nasal mucosa, palate, sinuses, orbit, face and brain

- rhinocerebral form

9

stains for mucorales ID

Calcofluor white or KOH

10

What to observe under microscope for mucorales ID

observe branching, broad-diameter, predominantly nonseptated hyphae

11

Cultivation: Fluffy, white to gray or brown hyphal growth, resembles cotton candy

mucorales

12

grows rapidly; covers agar suface within 24 to 96 hours

mucorales

13

hyphae may lift the lid of agar plate (aka "lid lifter")

mucorales

14

may appear to be coarse - dish is filled with loose, grayish hyphae, dotted with brown or black sporangia

mucorales

15

Mucorales spp
- unbranched sporangiophores; rhizoids appear opposite the point where stolon arises

Rhizopus spp

16

Mucorales spp
- singularly produced or branched sporangiophores with round sporangium at the tip; no
rhizoids or stolons

Mucor spp.

17

Mucorales spp
- pyriform sporangia with funnel-shaped area (apophysis)
- rhizoids originate between sporangiophores as with Absidia spp.

Lichtheimia spp.

18

- infections caused by dermatophytes involving the superficial areas of the body


Dermatomycoses

19

- most common fungal infections; referred to as tinea ("ringworm")

Dermatomycoses

20

- they break down and utilize keratin as nitrogen source

dermatophytes

21

- usually incapable of penetrating the subcutaneous tissue unless host is immunocompromised (even then, it is rare)

dermatophytes

22

gross appearance of lesion of which fungus: outer ring of the active progressing infection, with central healing

dermatophytes

23

stains for dermatophytes (2)

Calcofluor white or KOH

24

observe what structures for dermatophytes

presence of hyaline septate hyphae and/or arthroconidia

25

- infected hair shaft may be seen filled with masses of large arthroconidia in chains (endothrix invasion) or may show external masses of spores that ensheath the hair shaft (ectothrix invasion)

dermatophytes/dermatomycoses

26

used for final ID of dermatophytes

cultivation

27

what fungal infection reveal hyphae and air spaces within the shaft

T. schoenleinii

28

initial growth of dermatophytes is often subcultured onto what agars (2) to induce sporulation

cornmeal agar or potato dextrose agar

29


- most common causes of feet and nails infection



TRICHOPHYTON SPP.

30

- most are anthrophilic ("human-loving"), few are zoophilic (primarily infecting animals)

TRICHOPHYTON SPP.

31

- microconidia: smooth, spherical or pyriform or club-shaped (clavate), thin-walled with 3 to 8 septa;
“birds on a fence”

TRICHOPHYTON SPP.

32

- macroconidia: singly at terminal ends of hyphae or on short conidiophores

TRICHOPHYTON SPP.

33

rx for trichophyton

- Rx: terbinafine

34


- colony: flat or heaped-up, white to reddish, cottony or velvet surface; may be fluffy or granular



T. rubrum

35

- reverse side: cherry red color produced only after 3 to 4 weeks of incubation


T. rubrum

36

- macroconidia: cigar-shaped or pencil-shaped; sometimes on granular strain


T. rubrum

37

- urease (-), hair penetration (-)


T. rubrum

38


- rapidly-growing; most common cause of athlete’s foot



T. mentagrophytes

39

2 colonial forms of t. rubrum

fluffy or granular

40

2 colonial forms of t. mentagrophytes

downy and granular variety

41

what variety of mentagrophytes from tinea pedis

downy

42

what variety of mentagrophytes from lesions acquired by contact with animals

granular

43

- colony: white to cream-colored to yellow, red pigmentation (granular colonies)

T. mentagrophytes

44

- reverse side: rose-brown

T. mentagrophytes

45

- microconidia: small, spherical in grapelike-clusters; produced by granular colonies

T. mentagrophytes

46


- macroconidia: thin and smooth-walled, cigar-shaped with 2 to 5 septa; has a definitive narrow
attachment to the base

T. mentagrophytes

47

- urease (+); penetrates hair

T. mentagrophytes

48

CA of tinea capitis;





T. tonsurans

49

produces circular, scaly patches of alopecia (loss of hair); “black dot” ringworm

T. tonsurans

50

- slow-growing, enhanced by thiamine or inositol in casein agar

T. tonsurans

51

- colony: buff to brown, wrinkled and suedelike, shows radial folds and craterlike depression in the
center

T. tonsurans

52

- reverse side: yellowish to reddish brown

T. tonsurans

53

- microconidia: with flat bases, located on the sides of hyphae; with age becomes swollen and elongated (balloon forms)

T. tonsurans

54

- chlamydoconidia in old cultures

T. tonsurans

55


- causes lesions in cattle and in humans on the beard, neck, wrist and back of hand






T. verrucosum

56

- chain of large spores are seen in short stubs of hair from lesions

T. verrucosum

57

- slow-growing (14 to 30 days); enhanced at 35C to 37C, enriched with thiamine and inositol

T. verrucosum

58

- culture medium: 4% casein and 0.5% yeast extract; can hydrolyze casein

T. verrucosum

59

- colony: small, heaped and folded with aerial mycelium; ranges from gray and waxlike to bright yellow

T. verrucosum

60

- reverse side: nonpigmented but may be yellow

T. verrucosum

61

- chlamydoconidia in chains; antler hyphae

T. verrucosum

62


- macroconidia: “rat tail” or “string bean”; rarely formed

T. verrucosum

63

causes tinea favosa or favus;

T. schoenleinii

64

formation of yellowish cup-shaped crusts or scutulae on the scalp, scarring and permanent alopecia

Tinea favosa

65

- large inverted cones of hyphae, athroconidia at the base of the hair follicle and branching hyphae throughout the hair shaft;

T. schoenleinii

66

favic chandeliers and chlamydospores

T. schoenleinii

67

slow-growing organism (30 days or longer)

T. schoenleinii

68

- colony: white to light gray, waxy surface, irregular border, submerged hyphae that cracks the agar, nonpigmented

T. schoenleinii

69

- reverse side: tan or nonpigmented

T. schoenleinii

70

knobby and club-shaped hyphae

T. schoenleinii

71


- colony: “port wine” in color (purple), heaped up, verrucous, waxy

T. violaceum

72

- causes infection of scalp and body; endothrix hair invasion, “black dot” type of tinea capitis

T. violaceum

73

- very slow-growing; enhanced growth with thiamine

T. violaceum

74

- reverse side: purple or nonpigmented

T. violaceum

75

no micro and macroconidia

T. violaceum

76

has swollen hyphae with granules and chlamydoconidia

T. violaceum

77

- agent of tinea imbricata

T. concentricum

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