MYCOVIRO - Chapter 59 Flashcards Preview

► Med Misc 05 > MYCOVIRO - Chapter 59 > Flashcards

Flashcards in MYCOVIRO - Chapter 59 Deck (45):
1

always unicellular

protozoa

2

may be unicellular or multicellular

fungi
algae

3

always multicellular

helminths (have unicellular egg or larval forms)

4

outermost boundary that comes into direct contact with the environment

Glycocalyx

5

glycocalyx usually composed of

polysaccharides

6

Appears as a network of fibers, a slime layer, or a capsule

The Glycocalyx

7

functions of glycocalyx

Protection
Adhesion
Reception of signals

8

The layer beneath the glycocalyx varies among eukaryotes
Fungi and most algae (Describe cell wall)

thick, rigid cell wall

9

The layer beneath the glycocalyx varies among eukaryotes
protozoa and animal cells (Describe cell wall)

do not have this cell wall

10

Rigid
Provide support and shape
Different chemically from prokaryotic cell walls

cell wall

11

cell wall function

Provide support and shape

12

fungi cell wall inner layer (Describe)

Thick, inner layer of chitin or cellulose

13

fungi cell wall outer layer (Describe)

Thin outer layer of mixed glycans

14

cell wall of this organism is Varied in chemical composition

algae

15

composition of algae cell wall (4)

May contain cellulose, pectin, mannans, and minerals

16

Bilayer of phospholipids with protein molecules embedded

Cytoplasmic Membrane

17

Cytoplasmic Membrane
contains __

sterols

18

component of cytoplasmic membrane
Gives stability
Especially important in cells without a cell wall

sterol

19

Some scattered in the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton
Others associated with RER

ribosomes

20

Composed of large and small subunits of ribonucleoprotein

ribosomes

21

2 types of microscopic fungi

yeast and mold

22

types of microscopic fungi
Round oval shape
Unique mode of asexual reproduction

yeast

23

types of microscopic fungi
Long, threadlike cells

mold

24

General method of obtaining nutrition
(4)

Penetrates the substrate
Secretes enzymes
Breaks down the enzymes into small molecules
Absorbs the molecules

25

the woven, intertwining mass of hyphae that makes up the body or colony of a mold

Mycelium-

26

Unique organizational features of hyphae
divide the hyphae in to segments (most fungi- septate hyphae)

Septa

27

Unique organizational features of hyphae
one long, continuous cell

Nonseptate hyphae-

28

visible mass of growth on the substrate surface; penetrates the substrate to digest and absorb nutrients

Vegetative hyphae (mycelia)-

29

from vegetative hyphae; responsible for the production of spores

Reproductive (fertile) hyphae-

30

functions of hyphae

vegetative and reproductive

31

Function of spores

Multiplication
Survival
Producing genetic variation
Dissemination

32

Primary reproductive mode

- the production of spores

33

asexual spore
Formed by successive cleavages within the sporangium
Sporangium attached to the sporangiophore
Released when the sporangium ruptures

Sporangiospores

34

Aka conidia
Free spores
Develop either by pinching off the tip of fertile hypha or by segmentation of a vegetative hypha

conidiospores

35

type of spore
Increases genetic variation
Majority of fungi produce sexual spores at some point

Sexual Spores

36

Other characteristics that contribute to identification

Hyphal type
Colony texture and pigmentation
Physiological characteristics
Genetic makeup

37

Human infection by pathogenic fungi usually occurs through ???

accidental contact

38

Humans are generally resistant to fungal infection, except for two main types ??

Primary pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens

39

Mycoses vary in (2)

the way the agent enters the body and the degree of tissue involvement

40

Benefits of fungi

Decomposing organic matter and returning essential minerals to the soil
Mycorrhizae increase the ability of plant roots to absorb water and nutrients

41

increase the ability of plant roots to absorb water and nutrients

Mycorrhizae

42

fungi is used for the production of: (4)

Antibiotics
Alcohol
Organic acids
Vitamins

43

fungi Acquire nutrients from ___

substrates

44

Most fungi are saprobes
but Can also be ___

parasites

45

most fungi Most can propagate by (2)

growth of hyphae or fragmentation

Decks in ► Med Misc 05 Class (295):