Flashcards in Myelodysplastic syndrome and stem cell transplant Deck (10):
What are the characteristics of myelodysplastic syndrome?
(1) Hypercellular bone marrow
(2) Peripheral blood cytopenias
(3) Ineffective hematopoiesis
(4) Potential to progress to acute leukemia
What is characteristic of blood smears in myelodysplastic syndrome?
(1) Multinuclear RBC precursors at various stages of maturation, indicating asynchronous maturation
(2) Hypolobulated neutrophils (Pseudo-Pelger-Heut cell)
(4) Ringed sideroblasts
How is myeloplastic syndrome treated?
(1) Transfusions, hematopoietic growth factor
(3) Allogeneic stem cell transplant is the only possible cure
What are the two types of sources of stem cells?
(1) Autologous - patient's own stem cells
(2) Allogeneic - another person's stem cells
What is the technique for collecting stem cells?
Apheresis (for peripheral blood stem cells)
Which diseases are treated with autologous stem cell transplants?
(1) Multiple myeloma
(2) Hodgkin's lymphoma
(4) Solid tumors - neuroblastoma, germ cell tumors, ovarian cancers
Which diseases are treated with allogeneic stem cell transplants?
(1) Acute leukemia
(2) Myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders
(3) Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas
(4) Aplastic anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
What mediates graft vs host disease?
(1) Graft T cells recognize host cells as foreign
(2) Acute form results from cytokines, leading to skin rash
How is graft vs host disease prevented?
Immunosuppression: calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus, sirolimus, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil)