Flashcards in Nasal & Oral Cavities Deck (61):
What are the three MAJOR bones that make up the LATERAL wall? What are the 4 other bones?
1. Lacrimal Bone
2. Ethmoid (make up superior and middle conchae)
3. Inferior Nasal Concha (SEPARATE bone)
Nasal bone (lateral and alar cartilages also)
Medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone
What are the three major bones of the Medial wall aka NASAL SEPTUM?
1. Perpendicular Plate of ETHMOID bone
3. Septal Cartilage
What are the two major bones of the roof of the Nose?
1. Cribiform plate of ETHMOID bone
2. Body of sphenoid Bone
What is found under the inferior nasal concha? Where does this structure drain into?
- drains into the INFERIOR MEATUS
What is the opening of the nasal cavity into the nasopharynx called?
What are the 4 paranasal sinuses? How does the nasal cavity communicate with the paranasal sinuses?
1. Frontal Sinus
2. Maxillary Sinus
3. Sphenoid Sinus
4. Ethmoid Sinus
VIA meatal openings
To get to the Pterygopalatine fossa, one must travel through the ________
How does one get from the nasal cavity to the ORAL cavity? What nerve travels through this foramen?
- nasopalatine nerve
Where do the anterior, middle and posterior ethmoid air cells drain into?
anterior - semilunar meatus
middle - ethmoid bulla
posterior - superior meatus
How do olfactory nerve terminals reach the nasal cavity?
What blood vessel travels through the Sphenopalatine Foramen?
What is the purpose of the nasal sinuses?
Sinuses filled with fluid to increase humidity in nasal cavity (warm and humidify the air)
Swelling/ inflammation of the sinus is called ______
Sinusitis – swelling/inflammation of one sinus
(Pansinusitis – involvement of more than one sinus)
Where does the Maxillary Sinus drain into?
MAXILLARY OSTIA into the MIDDLE MEATUS
- the drain is located at the top near the Ethmoid sinus (has to fill to the top before it drains = not best functioning)
What is the space under the concha, which receives the drainage from the paranasal sinuses and lacrimal duct?
Where is the semilunar meatus found? Which meatus receives the most drainage?
semilunar --> Middle Concha
MOST drainage = Inferior Concha via the Nasolacrimal duct
What is the bulge in the middle meatus under the middle concha called?
The ethmoidal bulla
-is a bulge in the meatus which --helps to form the roof of the semilunar hiatus
What is the name of the sinus at the Semilunaris Hiatus?
What sinus drains into the sphenoethmoidal recess?
What are the three major arteries that provide arterial branches to the nasal cavity?
What is the blood supply of the LATERAL wall? Medial wall/nasal septum?
1. Anterior and Posterior Ethmoidal Arteries (opthalmic)
2. Lateral Nasal Artery (of facial)
3. Sphenopalatine Artery (maxillary)
What is the blood supply of the Medial wall/nasal septum?
1. Anterior and Posterior Ethmoidal Arteries (opthalmic)
2. Superior Labial (facial)
3. Sphenopalatine Artery
What two strictures travel through the incisive canal?
Where is the common site of nosebleeds?
KIESSELBACH'S area in the NASAL SEPTUM
- nosebleed due to:
trauma, infection, dry air, hypertension**
Where and what is Kiesselbach's area?
Anastomoses in NASAL SEPTUM (medial wall)
1. Anterior Ethmoidal (ONLY)
2. Superior Labial
What are the nerves of the Nasal Cavity on the LATERAL wall?
1. Anterior Ethmoidal (V1) - tip of nose
2. Posterior Ethmoidal (V2)- superior concha and sphenoethmoidal recess
3. LATERAL NASAL - (V2)--> pterygopalatine ganglion (no synapse)
-sensory to middle and inferior CONCHA
What are the nerves of the Nasal Cavity on the MEDIAL wall?
1. Anterior Ethmoidal (V1)- tip of nose(nares)
2. Posterior Ethmoidal (V1) - post./sup areas
The nasopalatine nerve becomes the _____ nerve and innervates____
Incisive nerve --> the skin by the first 4 incisors
What is the path of the parasympathetic fibers of the nasal cavity?
1. pre-ganglionic fibers in SUPERIOR SALIVATORY NUCLEUS of CNVII
2. Greater Petrosal N.
3. Nerve of Pterygoid Canal
4. Post-ganglionic fibers in Maxillary N. to the mucosal and paranasal sinuses glands
What is the path of the sympathetic fibers of the nasal cavity?
1. Pre-ganglionic fibers in thoracic IML
2. Sympathetic chain
3. SYNAPSE in the superior cervical ganglion
4. Post-ganglionics follow blood vessels and nerves (V2)
5. post-ganglionics in DEEP PETROSAL N. & nerve of pterygoid canal to nasal and mucosal glands (via V2)
What is the
2. lateral wall
3. anterior wall
4. medial wall
5. Posterior Wall
of the Pterygopalatine Fossa?
What is found exiting each area?
1. Roof = Foramen Rotundum --> Maxillary N. (V2)
2. Lateral Wall = Pterygomaxillary Fissure --> Sphenopalatine Artery
3. Anterior Wall = Inferior orbital fissure --> Infraorbital Nerve and Artery
4. Medial Wall = Sphenopalatine Foramen -->
5. Posterior Wall = Pterygoid Canal (carotid canal/lacerum) = Nerve & Artery of the Pterygoid Canal
6. Floor = Palatine Canal
- Greater & Lesser Palatine Nerves and Arteries
What nerve and artery does most of the lateral and medial wall of the nose?
Maxillary Artery & Maxillary N. (V2)
_______ stimulation normally increases secretion; ______ stimulation results in vasoconstriction and a subsequent decrease in secretions.
Which of the following statements regarding the sphenopalatine foramen is correct
A; It is locate don the medial wall of the Nasal cavity
B: transmits SPHENOPALATINE ARTERY
C; it is on the lateral wall of pterygopalatine fossa
D: It is an opening in the medial pterygoid plate
E: it provides direct communication
B: Transmits the Sphenopalatine Artery
The mouth is divided into the oral cavity & the _____
Vestibule - space between teeth and tongue
the palatoglossal fold is posterior to the palatopharyngeal fold. True or False?
it is in front of the palatopharyngeal fold
What bone forms the anterior 2/3 of hard palate? The posterior 1/3?
What is the nerve and blood supply to the heart palate?
GREATER PALATINE Nerve (V2) & Artery
- Incisive Nerve & Artery
What division of the trigeminal provides the sensory innervation to the hard palate?
Maxillary Division of Trigeminal
Do sympathetic and parasympathetics travel to the palatine mucosal glands?
- via the PTERYGOPALATINE GANGLION
What are the innervations and functions of the following muscles of the soft palate:
1. Tensor Veli Palatini
2. Levator Veli Palatini
3. Musculus Uvulae
ALL ARE INNERVATED BY VAGUS
Except: Tensor Veli Palatini --> Trigeminal V3
1. Tensor VP - tense soft palate (prevent flipping up during swallowing)
2. Levator VP- Prime mover of palate (elevates)
3. Musculus Uvulae- Shortens Uvulae
4. Palatoglossus - Moves tongue + depress arch
5. Palatopharyngeus - raise pharynx & depress arch
What is the nerve and blood supply to the soft palate?
Lesser Palatine Nerve & Artery
- sensory via V2 (Maxillary)
What are the functions of the INTRINSIC muscles of the tongue & what are they innervated by?
3. Superior Longitudinal
4. Inferior Longitudinal
ALL innovated by 12 HYPOGLOSSAL
1. Vertical - flattens tongue
2. Transverse - lifts up tongue/ thickens
3. Superior Longitudinal - curls tongue UP
4. Inferior Longitudinal - curls tongue DOWN
What are the functions of the EXTRINSIC muscles of the tongue & what are they innervated by?
ALL INNERVATED BY 12
EXCEPT*** --> Palatoglossus = 10
1. Genioglossus - PROTRUDE tongue (stick out)
2. Hyoglossus - RETRACT tongue
3. Styloglossus - SWALLOWING
4. Palatoglossus - aid in SWALLOWING
What 3 things does saliva contain?
1. Alkaline electrolye (moisten food)
2. Mucous (lubricant)
3. a-amylase (enzyme to break down starches)
Most of the daily secretions are provided by which gland?
What muscle is found posteriorly to Levator Palatini?
(Tensor is in front by Torus tuberius)
What artery is deep to the HYOGLOSSUS muscle?
Lingual Artery (branch of external carotid)
What is the bony process by Tensor Veli Palatini?
What nerve enters LATERALLY to Hyoglossus muscle and goes UNDER the submandibular Duct?
- supplies anterior 2/3 of tongue
What nerve enters oral cavity laterally and into the base of the tongue & supplies the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
What nerve supplies the BASE of the tongue?
Vagus --> via the Internal branch of SUPERIOR Laryngeal
The greater and lesser palatine nerves contain general sensory, post-ganglionic parasympathetic, and post-ganglionic sympathetic fibers. TRUE OR FALSE
What muscle and nerve is responsible for the gag reflex?
What two nerves are SUPERFICIAL to the Hyoglossus muscle?
Lingual N. & Hypoglossus N (12)
- both run LATERAL to hyoglossus muscle
(Lingual artery runs deep and laterally)
What supplies taste to the
1. Anterior 2/3
2. Posterior 1/3
3. Base of tongue & epiglottis
1. Chorda Tympani (7 hitches a ride on 5 - Lingual)
2. Glossopharyngeal nerve (9)
Describe the parasympathetic innervation to the tongue
chorda tympani --> lingual --> submandibular ganglion --> submandibular gland + sublingual gland
After a radiograph revealed a sialolith (stone) in a patient's right submandibular duct, the surgeon exposed the duct via an intraoral approach. In this approach, what tissues or structures must be cut through?
Mucous membrane only
Mucous membrane and genioglossus muscle
Mucous membrane and mylohyoid muscle
Mucous membrane and hyoglossus muscle
Mucous membrane only
The difficulty in swallowing was due to involvement of which muscle that elevates the tongue?
The chorda tympani contains which component before it joins the lingual nerve?
Taste fibers to the posterior third of the tongue