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Eleanor Rowe Geography > Natural Hazards > Flashcards

Flashcards in Natural Hazards Deck (83):
1

What is a destructive plate boundary?

Plated move together, oceanic plate sub ducted by continental plate.
Volcano
Earthquake

2

Constructive plate boundary:

Plates move apart, magma fills gap, oceanic plate
Volcano
Earthquake

3

Conservative plate boundary

Past one another
Friction
Earthquake

4

Structure of earth

Inner core
Outer core
Mantle
Crust

5

What is convection current?

Hot current rises from core towards crust but then cools as it looses heat and sinks back towards core in a circular motion.

6

Describe the global distribution of earthquakes and volcanos

Usually occur on plate boundarys
Mid Atlantic ridge
Pacific ring of fire

7

What is an earthquake

Vibrations of the earths crust that cause shaking at the surface
Friction builds up
Energy is released as shock
Point where it happens is called epicentre

8

What is a volcano

Explosion involving magma coming up through the earths surface

9

What are the two types of volcanos

Shield and composite

10

What was the magnitude of the Nepal earthquake

7.9

11

Magnitude of l'aquila earthquake

6.3

12

Deaths from Nepal earthquake

9000

13

Deaths from l'aquila earthquake

300

14

Homeless from Nepal earthquake

1 million

15

Homeless from l'aquila earthquake

70,000

16

Primary effects of Nepal earthquakes

350 aftershocks
26 hospitals destroyed
50% schools destroyed

17

Primary effects of l'aquila earthquakes

$11,000 worth of damage

18

Secondary effects of Nepal earthquake

Avalanche on Mount Everest
19 died

19

Secondary effects of l'aquila earthquake

Number of students at uni in the area decreased, causing loss in economy

20

Primary responses to Nepal earthquake

Facebook safety feature

21

L'aquila earthquake primary responses

40,000 tents given out and 10,000 hotel rooms provided for free

22

Secondary responses of Nepal earthquake

Government carried out post disaster needs assessment

23

Secondary responses to l'aquila earthquake

Residents didn't have to pay tax in 2010

24

Why can earthquakes be different in different places?

Magnitude
Time of year
Day and time
Population density

25

Why would a person continue to live in a tectonically active area?

Some settlements have grown into enormous cities so would be difficult to move
Some places are well prepared for hazards so people feel safe
Good job and way of life may keep you in the danger zone

26

How can we reduce the risks of a tectonic hazard?

Monitoring when it will happen
Planning what to do when it happens
Protecting people and buildings against the hazards
Predicting when it will happen

27

What is the order of the air cells from the equator?

Hadley
Ferrel
Polar

28

Where are the areas of low pressure?

Equator and then alternates between cells outwards

29

Why is heat more concentrated at the equator?

There is less surface area for the heat to spread Across

30

How are clouds formed?

When warm moist air cools and condenses

31

Where do tropical storms happen?

5-20 degrees north and south of the equator

32

What temp does the ocean need to be for a storm to form

26.5

33

What are the six steps of a tropical storm forming

1. Sun warms ocean up to 26.5 degrees and causes evaporation
2. Moist warm air rises causing low pressure
3. air cools and condenses and draws in more moisture from the air causing strong winds
4. Coriolis effect makes air spin upwards and creates eye of storm
5. Air forms large cumulonimbus clouds which make heavy rainfall
6. Air rushes from outside of storm to centre creating stronger winds

34

What are the conditions at the eye wall?

Extremely heavy rain

35

Conditions at eye of the storm

Very calm

36

Conditions outside eye wall of storm

Heavy rain
Thunder

37

How does climate change effect the distribution of tropical storms

Patterns of sea surface temperature
Don't form in south Atlantic

38

How does climate change affect the frequency of tropical storms

Frequency may decrease in the futureh

39

How might climate change effect the intensity of tropical storms

Sea surface temperature rise so easier for storms to form at higher rates

40

When was typhoon Haiyan

November 2013

41

What category storm was typhoon Haiyan

5

42

How many people died from Haiyan

6,300

43

How many were homeless from Haiyan

600,000

44

What were the secondary effects of typhoon Haiyan

6million lost main source of income
Power supplies cut off for a month
Looting and violence in tacloban

45

Immediate responses to typhoon Haiyan

1200 evacuation shelters set up
Field hospitals

46

Long term responses to typhoon Haiyan

Thousands of new homes built away from flood prone areas
Oxfam replaced damaged fishing boats

47

How can a tropical storm be monitored

Satellites can be sent to investigate cloud cover and precipitation

48

How can we be protected against tropical storms

Furniture can be strapped to the floor
Shutters added to Windows
Flood walls reduce impacts of storm surges

49

How can we plan for a tropical storm

Ensure vehicles have fuel for evacuation
Practice evacuation drills with family
Emergency electricity generators

50

What are the main weather hazards for the uk?

Extreme cold
Extreme heat and drought
Storms
Flooding

51

Why does the uk get extreme cold

Arctic air brings snow and cold conditions

52

What are the effects of extreme cold in the uk

Problems for farmers
Schools closed

53

How does the uk manage extreme cold

Councils are responsible for clearing roads
Charity's raise awareness of elderly people needing help

54

Why does the uk get extreme heat and drought

Hot and sunny air masses and weather from the south

55

What are the effects of extreme heat and drought in the uk

People die and become ill from dehydration

56

How can the uk manage extreme heat and drought

Hose pipe ban

57

Example of extreme cold in the uk

December 2009 snowstorm

58

Example of extreme heat and drought in uk

Heatwave in 2003

59

Why does the uk get storms

Atlantic air
Following period of hot weather

60

Effects of storms in uk

Flash flooding
Lightning

61

How does the uk manage storms

Trains and planes cancelled
Social media alerts

62

Why does the uk get flooding

Prolonged rainfall

63

What are the effects of flooding in the uk

River floods
Damage to properties

64

How does the uk manage floods

Environmental agency measures ground moisture

65

Example of uk storm

2014 London electrical storm

66

Example of uk floods

Bascastle flash flood 2004

67

WHen were the Somerset floods

December 2013

68

How much rainfall occurred during the Somerset floods

350mm in two months

69

What were the effects of the Somerset floods

600 houses flooded
1000 livestock evacuated
Local roads cut off
Floodwater heaving contaminated with chemicals and sewage

70

Immediate responses of Somerset floods

Villagers used boats to go shopping and go to school

71

Long term responses of Somerset floods

8km of rivers were finally dredged in 2014
Road levels have been raised

72

What is the recent evidence for climate change

Ice cores- rings with co2
Retreating glaciers - change in response to climate change
Tree rings - thickness in rings records climate

73

What are the milankovitch cycles

Eccentricity / orbit
Axial tilt
Precession / wobble

74

What solar activity effects climate change

Sun spots

75

What volcanic activity effects climate change

Volcanic ash forms layer that blocks out sunlight

76

How does the greenhouse effect work

Some solar radiation is effected by Earth and atmosphere
Some goes straight to earth
Some bounces off earth and then off atmosphere and then back to earth

77

What are the sources of greenhouse gases

Burning fossil fuels for transport heating and manufacturing
Cows produce methane
Population growth
Deforestation gets rid of carbon sinks

78

How can we manage climate change

Use alternate sources of energy
- renewable sources
Planting trees
- act as carbon sinks
Carbon capture
Removes carbon from atmosphere and stores underground
International agreements.
Eg Paris agreements

79

How do we adapt to climate change?

Agriculture
- educate farmers in water harvesting
Managing water supply

80

Example of a destructive plate margin

Pacific plate and Eurasian plate

81

Example of constructive plate margin

North American plate and Eurasian plate

82

Example of conservative plate margin

Pacific plate and North American plate

83

Example of collision plate margin

Indo Australian plate and Eurasian plate