NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Arteries Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Arteries > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE: ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Arteries Deck (253):
1

the external carotid artery (ECA) terminates within the _ just behind the neck of the mandible.

parotid gland

2

the ECA ends in the parotid gland where it gives off what 2 final branches?

superificial temporal artery
and maxillary artery

3

the ECA supplies structures in neck, face, scalp and _ and _

maxilla and tongue

4

both the internal and external carotid arteries begin at the upper border of the

thyroid cartilage (at termination of carotid sheath and common carotid artery)

5

the external carotid artery lies in which triangle of the neck at its origin

carotid triangle

6

mnemonic for branches of external carotid artery

some aggressive lovers find odd positions more stimulating: superior thyroid
ascending pharyngeal
lingual
facial
occipital
posterior auricular
maxillary
superficial temporal

7

circle of willis if formed by all of the arteries except:
a. anterior communicating artery
b. posterior communicating artery
c. anterior cerebral artery
d. superior cerebellar artery

d. superior cerebellar artery

8

blood supplied to brain, face and scalp via what 2 major vessels

common carotid (R and L) and the vertebral arteries (R and L)

9

the right common carotid arises from the _

brachiocephalic trunk

10

the left common carotid arises from the _

aortic arch directly

11

the common carotid lies in the carotid sheath and runs up in the neck to the _ border of the thyroid cartilage

superior

12

the _carotid artery supplies the face and scalp

external

13

the _carotid artery divides further in the middle cranial fossa into the

internal
anterior and middle cerebral arteries

14

the internal carotid artery divides into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries which supplies the anterior 3/5 of the cerebrum except for parts of

temporal and occipital lobes

15

the _ arteries supply the posterior 2/5 of the cerebrum, pars of the cerebellum and the brain stem

vertebrobasilar

16

the two vertebral arteries (branches of subclavian) converge to become the _ artery which supplies the posterior brain

basilar artery

17

the circle of willis is formed by

terminal part of internal carotid (L and R), anterior cerebral artery (r +L) middle cerebral artery (R + L), posterior cerebral artery (R + L), anterior and posterior communicating artery

18

does the internal carotid artery have branches outside the skull?

no

19

internal carotid artery enters the skull thru the

carotid canal

20

inside the skull the internal carotid gives off the _ artery which supplies the optic nerve, eye, orbit, and scalp

ophthalmic artery

21

the ophthalmic artery terminates by passing thru the cavernous sinus to join the

circle of willis

22

in carotid sinus syncope, the carotid sinus is overly sensitive to manual stimulation and can lead to loss of consciousness. which is true:
a. it is stimulated by changes in BP
b. it functions as a chemoreceptor
c. it is innervated by the facial nerve
d. it is located at the terminal end of the external carotid artery
e. it communicates freely with the cavernous sinus

a. it is stimulated by changes in BP

23

the carotid sinus is a dilation of the internal carotid artery at its origin, the _

common carotid artery.

24

the carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the

sinus nerve of Hering - a branch of CN IX

25

the carotid _ is a small cluster of chemoreceptros located near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery.

body

26

the carotid body detects changes in the composition of arterial blood flowing thru it, mainly the _

partial pressure of oxygen (mainly)
but also carbon dioxide. also sensitive to changes in pH and temperature

27

the aortic body is one of several small clusters of _

chemoreceptors, baroreceptors and supporting cells on the aortic arch. measures the changes in BP and composition of arterial blood flowing past it, including the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxid and pH.

28

the aortic body is innervated by

cranial nerve X (Vagus)

29

carotid sinus syndrome is a temporary loss of

consciousness that sometimes accompanies convulsive seizures bc of the intensity of the carotid sinus reflex hen pressure builds in one or both carotid sinuses

30

which of the following branches of the internal carotid artery Is most implicated in a stroke?
a.opthalmic
b. anterior choroidal
c. middle cerebral
d. anterior cerebral

middle cerebral artery

31

the largest branch of internal carotid artery is the

middle cerebral artery

32

lenticulostriate arteries branch from the _ aretery and are often called "arteries of stroke" because they are often involved in a stroke

middle cerebral artery

33

cerebrovascular accident is aka

stroke

34

the _ is a branch of the ICA that supplies oxygenated blood to most the medial portions of the frontal lobe and parietal lobes

anterior cerebral

35

the left and right anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the

anterior communicating artery

36

stroke warning signs?

severe headache, loss of consciousness, unexplained dizziness, dimness or loss of vision particularly in one eye, loss of speech/difficulty speaking, sudden weakness, paralysis, numbness of face,arm and leg on one or both sides of body

37

intracranial berry aneurysm aka saccular aneurysm is a sac-like out pouching in a __ BV

cerebral

38

berry aneurisms are usually found in the

circle of willis

39

sinusoids are most likely found in all of the organs except:

spleen
bone marrow
cartilage
parathyroid glands

cartilage

40

a sinusoid is a small BV similar to a capillary but with a _ endothelium

discontinuous= means the cells do not overlap like in capillaries and are spread out

41

sinusoids are found in

liver, lymph tissue, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic organs such as bone marrow and the spleen

42

sinusoids are highly permeable, fewer tight junctions and discontinuous endothelial cells. the permeability is such as to allow _ to enter and leave the bloodstream

small and medium sized proteins such as albumin

43

1. sinusoids have a _ lumen.
2. capillaries have a _ lumen
small/large

1. large
2. small

44

1. sinusoids/capillaries are wider and more irregular

sinusoids

45

sinusoids have walls that consist partly of

phagocytic cells

46

the sinusoids is part of the _ system which is concerned chiefly with phagocytosis and antibody formation

reticuloendothelial

47

1. the most prominent functional component in the tunica media of LARGE arteries is the:
2. the most prominent functional component in the tunica media of SMALL arteries is the
skeletal muscle cells
elastic fibers
smooth muscle cells
collagen fibers

1. elastic fibers
2. smooth muscle cells

48

tunica intima of blood vessels consists of a layer of _ epithelium called endothelium and a thin connective-tissue basement membrane

simple squamous

49

the only layer that is present in ALL blood vessels of all sizes is the:
tunica intima/media/adventitia

intima

50

atherosclerosis is plaque bw which layers of the blood vessel?

bw the BM and the endothelial cells of the tunica intima

51

tunica media is the middle layer and is usually very thick in __. it consists of what fibers?

arteries
smooth muscle fibers and elastic fibers

52

which layer of BV's increases or decreases the lumen diameter and therefore effects blood pressure?
tunica intima/media/adventitia

tunica media

53

tunica adventitia is an outer layer of CT containing what fibers

collagen and elastic

54

the tunica adventitia of the larger vessels is infiltrated with tiny blood vessels called _ that nourish the external tissues of the blood vessel wall

vasa vasorum (vessels of the vessels)

55

blood carried away in arteries that divide into...

smaller arteries ==> divide into arterioles ==> divide into microscopic capillaries (exchange area).

56

1. in large arteries the tunica _ is thicker than veins
2. in veins the tunica _ is thicker than arteries

1. media
2. adventitia

57

the vasa vasorum is part of the tunica adventitia and penetrates the outer regions of the _ supplying its cells with nutrients.
they are found in what vessels?

tunica media
found in large arteries and veins

58

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers reach the otic ganglia thru which nerve:

greater petrosal nerve
lesser petrosal nerve
V3
vagus nerve

lesser petrosal nerve

59

the tunica media and adventitia are absent in which bv type

capillaries

60

thru capillary walls we exchange (2)

gases and metabolites (intermediates and products of metabolism. The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules)

61

capillaries only contain

tunica intima = endothelium only

62

in certain structures like the liver, spleen, bone marrow and some glands, the arterioles rather than connecting with capillaries, empty into BVs called

sinusoids

spleen, liver, bone marrow, lymph tissue

63

the velocity of blood flow is slowest in what blood vessel

capillaries

64

a decrease in vessel diameter causes (increase/decrease) in resistance to blood flow?

increase

65

Poiseuille's Law?

F = (pi*deltaP *r^4)/8n^1

F = rate of blood flow
delta P = diff bw pressure at ends of the vessel
r = radius of vessel
1 is the length of the vessel
n = viscosity of the blood

66

what factor plays the greatest role in determining blood flow thru a vessel?

diameter (since r is raised to 4th power)

67

which type of capillaries have no fenestrae? how do things transverse the capillary?

continuous (somatic)
pinocytosis

68

which type of capillaries have fenestrae

fenestrated (visceral) capillaries

69

__ capillaries have large lumens, numerous fenestrae, discontinuous basal lamina and lack pinocytotic vesicles.

sinusoidal

70

the hapatic veins that drain the liver empty into the:
a. hepatic sinusoids
b. azygous vein
c. inferior vena cava
d. inferior vena cava and azygous veins
e. portal vein

c. inferior vena cava

71

the hepatic artery brings _ blood to the liver

oxygenated blood

72

the hepatic portal vein brings _ blood from the _

food-laden blood from the abdominal viscera

73

ALL blood supplied to the liver from the hepatic arteries and the portal vein eventually drains via the hepatic veins to the

ivc

74

the unusual aspect of hepatic circulation is that all the blood supplied to the liver from the hepatic arteries and the portal vein empties into the

same sinusoids = therefore contain a mixture of arterial and venous blood

75

the sinusoids of each lobule empty into a

common central vein

76

the common central vein of each lobule then empties into one of

3 hepatic veins ==> IVC ===> heart

77

the portal triad is found in the

liver

78

the portal triad is made up of

hepatic artery
bile duct
portal vein

79

the greatest blood pressure drop is seen in the transition from
a. arterioles to capillaries
b. arteries to arterioles

arteries to arterioles

80

the highest pressure of circulating blood is found in the _ and gradually drops as the blood flows until it reaches _ where it is the lowest

arteries = highest ==>arterioles ==> capillaries ==> venules ==>
veins = lowest

81

1. arterioles diameter big/small
2. arterioles lumen big/small
3. thin/thick tunica media? elastic/smooth muscle more

1. very small 0.5mm or less.
2. small lumen
3. thick = almost all smooth muscle with little elastic tissue

82

arterioles can cause profound changes in _ resistance therefore they directly affect arterial blood pressure

peripheral

83

primary function of arteries

all arteries transport blood away from the heart. generally have blood that is rich in oxygen

84

primary function of arterioles

control blood pressure

85

primary function of capillaries

diffusion of nutrients/oxygen

86

primary function of veins

ALL carry blood back to the heart. most generally have blood that is low in oxygen.

87

all of the following supply blood to the tonsils except:
a. ascending pharyngeal artery
b. tonsillar branch of facial artery
c. superior labial artery
d. dorsal lingual artery

c. superior labial artery

88

the facial artery supplies blood to the

face, tonsils, palate, submandibular gland, muscles of facial expression, dorsum of nose, labial glands and muscle of the lips

89

facial artery originates in the _ artery

ECA

90

branches of facial artery are

Cervical portion: SAT: submental, ascending palatine, tonsillar
facial portion: inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, angular

91

the submental branch of the facial artery supplies what areas

area below the chin, submandibular salivary glands and portion of sublingual salivary glands

92

the tonisilar branch of facial artery supplies the

tonsils

93

the ascending branch of facial artery supplies the

ascends alongside the pharynx to reach the base of the skull

94

the inferior labial branch of facial artery supplies the

lower lip

95

the superior labial branch of facial artery supplies the

upper lip and vestibule of nose

96

the lateral branch of facial artery supplies the

lateral wall of nose (outer side)

97

the angular branch of facial artery supplies the

medial side of the eye

98

the terminal branch of the facial artery is the

angular artery

99

the terminal branch of the facial artery is the artery that anastomoses with the

dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery

100

the blood supply to palatine tonsils is thru branches of what 5 arteries

dorsal lingual artery (lingual artery), ascending palatine artery (of facial artery), tonsillar branch (of facial artery), ascending pharyngeal artery (of ECA), and lesser palatine artery (of descending palatine artery)

101

the palatine tonsils venous drainage is

peritonsillar plexus ==> drain into the lingual and pharyngeal veins ==> IJV

102

which of the following arteries is found bw the hyoglossus and genioglossus muscles:
a. IA artery
b. PSA artery
c. lingual artery
d. infraorbital artery
e. facial artery

lingual artery

103

what 4 things are found in the pterygomandibular space = space bw the medial pterygoid muscle and the ramus of the mandible

IA vein, artery and nerve, and lingual nerve

104

the injection site for the inferior alveolar nerve block is probed with a cotton tip applicator at the depth of the _ on the medial surface of the ramus

pterygomandibular space

105

the IA nerve block: needle is inserted into the pterygomandibular space until the

mandible is contracted

106

the IA nerve block: needle is withdrawn 1mm from the tissues to protect the

periosteum and then the injection is administered

107

if the palatal mucosa opposite to the maxillary first molar was lacerated and bleeding occurred, which of the following arteries is most likely involved:
a. greater palatine artery
b. descending palatine artery
c. nasopalatine artery
d. lesser palatine artery
e. middle superior alveolar artery
f. posterior superior alveolar artery

a. greater palatine artery

108

the greater palatine artery supplies

the mucosa of hard palate posterior to the max canines

109

the mucosa of the hard palate anterior to the maxillary canine is supplied by the _artery

nasopalatine artery

110

the soft palate and tonsils are supplied by the _ artery

lesser palatine

111

the main artery to the tongue is the

lingual artery (ECA branch)

112

the dorsal lingual arteries provide blood supply to the _ of the tongue

root

113

the deep lingual arteries of the lingual artery supplies the _ of the tongue

body

114

the sublingual arteries of the lingual artery supplies

the floor of the mouth including the sublingual glands

115

examination of a patient with an ulcerative carcinoma of the posterior third of the tongue revealed bleeding from the lesion and difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). the bleeding was arterial. what arteries was involved?
dorsal lingual
deep lingual
tonsillar
sublingual

dorsal lingual artery = runs on the superficial surface of the tongue (branch of lingual artery that delivers blood to the posterior superficial tongue)

116

the tongue is supplied by what arteries?

lingual artery, tonsillar brach of facial artery, and the ascending pharyngeal artery (ECA)

117

the veins of the tongue drain into the

IJV

118

the lingual artery is in which triangle

carotid

119

the lingual artery arises from the external carotid artery at the level of the tip of the

greater horn of the hyoid bone

120

what are the layers of the scalp?

- Skin
- Connective tissue
- Aponeurosis
- Loose areolar tissue
- Pericardium
(SCALP = mnemonic)

121

foramen ovale contents?

Mnemonic – foramen ovale contents: OVALE
-Otic ganglion (just inferior)
-V3
-Accessory meningeal artery
-Lesser petrosal nerve
-Emissary veins

122

what CN pass thru Internal auditory meatus

-Internal auditory meatus – CN VII, VIII

123

what passes thru jugular foramen

Jugular foramen – CN IX, X, XI, jugular vein

124

what passes thru foramen magnum

Foramen magnum – spinal roots of CN XI, brain stem, vertebral arteries

125

structures passing thru cavernous sinus

CN III, IV, V1, and V2 pass through it (in that order from superior to inferior) attached to the lateral wall, while CN VI is “free-floating” and not attached to the wall of the cavernous sinus

126

Memonic – foramina through which CN V exits:

divisions of the CN V exit owing to Standing Room Only
-Superior orbital fissure – V1
-Foramen Rotundum – V2
-Foramen Ovale – V3

127

what passes thru Superior orbital fissure

Superior orbital fissure – CN III, IV, V1, VI, ophthalmic vein

128

what passes thru optic canal

- Optic canal – CN II, ophthalmic artery, central retinal vein

129

what passes thru foramen spinosum

Foramen spinosum – middle meningeal a.

130

borders of infratemporal fossa

Lateral – ramus of the mandible
-Anterior – posterior aspect of the maxilla
-Superior – inferior orbital fissure
-Medial – pterygopalatine fossa and the lateral pterygoid of the sphenoid bone
-Roof – greater wing of the sphenoid bone

131

Contents of the infratemporal fossa

-Mandibular nerve (V3) – transmitted through the foramen ovale
-Middle meningeal vessels
-Sphenomandibular ligament, which attaches close to the spine of the sphenoid bone
-Medial and lateral pterygoid muscles

132

1. Sphenoidal sinus drains into __
2. __ meatus contains the Hiatus semilunaris
3. Nasolacrimal duct drains into _meatus

1.superior meatus
2. Middle
3. inferior

133

Mneumonic – muscles inervated by Vagus nerve, CN X

All muscles with the root “-palat” (except tensor veli palatini – CN V2) are inervated by CN X

134

contents of carotid triangle (5 vessels and 4 nerves)

Vessels:
-Common Carotid Artery and branches
-Branches of External Carotid Artery
-Internal Jugular Vein
-Deep Cervical Lymph Nodes
Nerves:
-CN VII (Facial Nerve) Cervical Branches
-CN X (Vagus Nerve)
-CN XI (Spinal Accessory Nerve)
-CN XII (Hypoglossal Nerve)
-Ansa Cervicalis (Superior and inferior Roots)

135

branches of ECA in the carotid triangle

-Superior Thyroid Artery
-Ascending Pharyngeal Artery
-Lingual Artery
-Facial Artery
-Occipital Artery

Mnemonic: Some Attendings Like Freaking Out Potential Medical Students

136

what is the ONLY vein that drains into the Subclavian vein

External Jugular Vein

137

Name the contents of the Submandibular Triangle

Submandibular Salivary Gland
Submandibular Lymph Nodes
CN XII - Hypoglossal Nerve

138

Which recurrent laryngeal nerve is longer and wraps around the aortic arch?

left

139

The Submental Artery runs with what nerve?

Mylohyoid Branch of Mandibular Nerve (V3)

140

Describe the spatial relationship between the hypoglossal nerve, the lingual artery and the hyoglossus muscle:

The Hypoglossal Nerve is Lateral and Superficial to the Hyoglossus Muscle.

The Lingual Artery is Medial and Deep to the Hyoglossus Muscle

141

motor innervation to tongue

CN XII except palatoglossus (CNX)

142

sensory innervation to the tongue?

anterior 2/3:lingual branch of V3
posterior 1/3: CN IX
Vagus (X) = thru the internal laryngeal nerve = supplies epiglottis

143

taste to the tongue is supplied via

facial CN VII = via chord of tympani supplies ant 2/3
CN IX posterior 1/3

144

the smallest branch of ECA

ascending pharyngeal

145

during a boxing match boxer got blow on the lateral side of skull and fell unconscious for several seconds. He was asymptomatic for the first 24 hours then he developed elevated intracranial pressure (headache, nausea, and vomiting). which arteries most likely involved?
a. middle cerebral
b. deep temporal
c infraorbital
d. middle meningeal
e. inferior alveolar artery

d. middle meningeal artery

146

calvaria means

skull cap

147

the _ artery is the largest of the 3 paired arteries which supply the meninges

middle

148

The __ is the region where the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid join together.[1] It is located on the side of the skull, just behind the temple.

pterion

149

the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery runs beneath the pterion. it is vulnerable to injury at this point bc the skull is thin. rupture of this artery may give rise to _ hematoma

epidural

150

which artery makes a deep indentation in the calvarium

middle meningeal (runs w dura mater surrounding the brain)

151

which arteries supply the greater curvature of the stomach?

right gastroepiploic, left gastroepiploic and short gastric arteries

152

all arteries that supply the stomach are derived from the

celiac trunk (artery)

153

the celiac artery originates from the

abdominal aorta just below the diaphragm = T12

154

the celiac artery supplies the _gut

foregut

155

the celiac artery is surrounded by the _ and lies _ the lesser sac of peritoneum

celiac plexus, behind

156

three terminal branches of celiac artery

splenic artery
left gastric
common hepatic arteries

157

the splenic artery runs to the left along the upper border of the _ and behind the _

pancreas
stomach

158

branches of splenic artery

pancreatic branches
left gastroepiploic artery
the short gastric arteries

159

the _artery runs to the cardiac end of the stomach, gives off a few esophageal branches, and then turns along the lesser curvature of the stomach. it anastomoses with the right gastric artery

left gastric

160

the common hepatic artery gives rise to what 3 arteries

gastroduodenal, right gastric, hepatic artery proper.

161

the hepatic artery proper gives off the

right and left hepatic artery and cystic artery from the right hepatic artery

162

lesser curvature of stomach supplied by what arteries

R gastric artery inferiorly and L gastric artery superiorly (which also supplies the cardiac region)

163

the internal thoracic artery ends in the 6th intercostal space by dividing into the

superior epigastric and musculophrenic arteries

164

the internal thoracic artery supplies the _

anterior wall of the body from clavicle to umbilicus

165

the anterior intercostal arteries are a branch of

internal thoracic artery (branch of subclavian artery)

166

anterior intercostal arteries supply the

upper 6 intercostal spaces.

167

the pericardiacophrenic artery is a branch of the internal thoracic artery (branch of subclavian artery) that accompanies which nerve and supplies the

phrenic
pericardium

168

the mediastinal arteries = internal thoracic artery (branch of subclavian artery), supply the

anterior mediastinum contents ex. thymus gland

169

the musculophrenic artery = internal thoracic artery (branch of subclavian artery) supplies

diaphragm and the lower intercostal spaces

170

the superior epigastric artery = internal thoracic artery (branch of subclavian artery) supplies the

rectus muscle

171

the inferior epigastric artery = a branch of the external iliac artery anastomoses with the

superior epigastric artery in the rectus sheath of the umbilicus

172

at what level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate into the common iliac arteries and also gives rise to the middle sacral artery?
T10/T12/T2/L4/L5

L4

173

the aorta commences at the upper part of the left ventricle and ascends a short distance,then arches back and to the left side over the _

root of the left lung.

174

the aorta then descends within the thorax on the _ side of the vertebral column

Left

175

the aorta passes thru the diaphragm in front/behind the _ vertebrae

in front of T12

176

at the level of L4 the aorta divides into the

two common iliac arteries

177

the characteristic feature of the aorta is that it contains a lot of _ in its tunica media

elastic fibers in its tunica media

178

anatomically the aorta is divided into the

ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta

179

the descending aorta is subdivided into the

thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta

180

the only branches of ascending aorta are

right and left coronary arteries

181

the branches of the aortic arch are

brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid and left subclavian

182

thoracic aorta (above diaphragm) extends from what vertebrae and lies in what mediastinum

T4-T12
posterior

183

there is 1 bronchial artery on the _ side of the body and _ on the right

1 = left
2 = right

184

the right bronchial artery branches from the

third posterior intercostal artery

185

the left bronchial artery splits directly from the

thoracic aorta

186

the abdominal portion of the aorta extends from what vertebrae and lies in what mediastinum

T12-L4

187

the blood supply of the mucosa of the nasal septum is derived from which artery

maxillary artery

188

which branch of maxillary artery supplies most of the blood to the nasal mucosa

sphenopalatine artery

189

the greater palatine artery emerges from the greater palatine foramen and courses anteriorly and passes thru the __ where it anastomoses with the posterior septal branch of the sphenopalatine artery to supply the anterior nasal septum

incisive foramen

190

the ophthalmic artery is a branch of the _artery

ICA

191

the pterygopalatine fossa is a cone shaped depression __to the infratemporal fossa.

deep

192

the pterygopalatine fossa is located bw the

pterygoid process and the maxillary tuberosity close to the apex of the orbit

193

the pterygopalatine fossa communicates laterally with the _ thru the _

infratemporal fossa thru the
pterygomaxillary fissure

194

the pterygopalatine fossa communicates medially with the _ thru the _

nasal cavity
sphenopalatine foramen

195

the pterygopalatine fossa communicates superiorly with the _ thru the _

with the skull thru foramen rotundum

196

the pterygopalatine fossa communicates anteriorally with the _ thru the _

orbit
inferior orbital fissure

197

the distal portion of the duodenum receives arterial supply from the inferior or pancreaticoduodenal artery which branches from the

superior mesenteric artery

198

arterial supply of jejunum and ileum

superior mesenteric artery

199

the large intestine cecum blood supply

from superior mesenteric artery anterior and posterior cecal arteries

200

the large intestine appendix blood supply

posterior cecal artery = appendicular artery

201

ascending colon blood supply

from superior mesenteric artery ileocolic and right colic branches

202

descending colon blood supply

left colic and sigmoid branches of inferior mesenteric artery

203

sigmoid colon blood supply

sigmoid branches of inferior mesenteric artery

204

transverse colon blood supply

proximal 2/3 = middle colic artery from superior mesenteric artery. distal 1/3 = left colic artery of inferior mesenteric artery

205

blood to rectum

superior, inferior, middle rectal arteries

206

blood to anus

superior and inferior rectal arteries

207

all of the following are direct branches of the subclavian artery except one:
internal thoracic
thryocervical
inferior thyroid
dorsal scapular artery

inferior thyroid

208

there are _# brachiocephalic veins and _ braciocephalic arteries

2brachiocephalic veins
1 braciocephalic artery

209

the upper limbs are supplied by the

subclavian arteries

210

the head and neck are supplied by the

right and left common carotid arteries

211

are the common carotid arteries the same length

no.

212

are the common carotid arteries different in their mode of origin

yes

213

the R common carotid artery is a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk. T/F

true

214

the left common carotid artery is a branch of the aortic arch t/f

true

215

the common carotid artery travels in a sheath deep/superficial to the SCM

deep

216

the internal/external carotid has no branches in the neck

internal

217

the branches of the internal carotid supple the

INSIDE of cranial cavity

218

the _ carotid gives rise to the ophthalmic artery = major blood supply of orbit of the eye - enters thru the optic foramen/canal with the optic nerve

internal

219

the common carotid artery ends by dividing at what level

larynx

220

the internal carotid ends by dividing into the

anterior and middle cerebral arteries that contribute to the circle of willis

221

the external carotid has 8 branches that mainly supply the

structures outside the cranial cavity

222

name the 4 anterior branches of the external carotid

superior thyroid artery
lingual
facial
maxillary

223

subclavian artery branches supply both intracranial and extracranial structures. t/f

true but the major destination is the upper extremity = arms

224

on the left side of the body the L common carotid and L subclavian arteries arise from the _ of aorta and are in the _ mediastinum

arch
superior

225

major arterial origin supplying mandibular anterior teeth?
a. mandibular artery
b. facial artery
c. maxillary artery
d. vertebral artery

c. maxillary artery

226

both renal arteries arise from the abdominal aorta below/above the superior mesenteric artery

below

227

how much of cardiac output goes to kidneys

1/3

228

the renal artery is located above/below the renal vein

above renal vein

229

most common renovascular anomaly

supernumerary renal arteries (2 or more arteries to a single kidney)

230

which renal artery is longer?
which one is higher?

the right is longer and lower than the left renal artery

231

the right renal artery passes behind/in front of ivc, right renal vein, descending duodenum and pancreas head

behind

232

the left renal artery lies behind the

left renal vein, body of pancreas, and splenic vein

233

the left renal artery is crossed by the __.

inferior mesenteric vein

234

as renal arteries pass into the kidneys they branch into successively smaller arteries. name them

interlobar arteries --> arcuate arteries --> interlobular arteries --> afferent arterioles --> nephron

235

urinary bladder is supplied by branches of the _ arteries

internal iliac

236

the subscapular artery which supplies the subscapularis muscle branches off the

3rd part of the axillary artery

237

the axillary artery begins at the lateral border of the

1st rib as a continuation of subclavian artery into the axilla

238

the axillary artery terminates at the lower border of the _ muscle

teres major

239

past the teres major muscle the axillary artery continues as the

brachial artery

240

is the pectoralis minor muscle superficial or deep tot he axillary artery

superficial

241

the first part of the axillary artery is _ to pectoralis minor

medial

242

the first part of the axillary artery has only one branch, the _

superior thoracic artery

243

the second part of the axillary artery lies _ the pectoralis minor and has 2 branches:

behind
thoracocromial and lateral thoracic artery

244

the third part of the axillary artery lies _ to the pectoralis minor muscle and has 3 branches

lateral
subscapular artery
anterior humerul circumflex and posterior humeral circumflex artery

245

the brachial artery is closely related to the _ nerve

median nerve

246

in proximal regions, the median nerve is _ to the brachial artery

lateral

247

in distal regions, the median nerve

crosses the medial side of the brachial artery and lies anterior to the elbow joint

248

in the skull the 2 vertebral arteries join up to form the _ artery

basilar = called the vertebrobasilar system which supplies the posterior part of the circle of willis

249

the _ artery is the main blood supply to the brain stem

basilar artery

250

if one of carotid arteries were compromised the _arteries would supply the brain

basilar

251

branches of the _ and _ artery are responsible for circulation to cerebellum

vertebral and basilar

252

vertebral arteries give rise to

PICA = posterior inferior cerebellar artery

253

basilar give rise to

AICA (anterior inferior cerebellar artery) and SCA (superior cerebellar artery)