NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Endocrine Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Endocrine Deck (319):
1

the pituitary gland is composed of two distinct tissue types. These tissue types have their embryonic origin in what layers?
ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm

ectoderm

2

hypophysis

pituitary gland

3

the pituitary lies in the _ which is in the _ bone

sella turcica = sphenoid bone
to remember both start with an S

4

the hypophysis is in the _ of the brain

base

5

the pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus thru the

infundibulum

6

the pituitary receives both _ and _ stimuli

both neural and chemical

7

pituitary is called the master endocrine gland bc it

controls so many other glands

8

pituitary controls other gland thru _ hormones

tropic

9

tropic hormones are hormones that

affect the activity of other endocrine glands

10

is the pituitary essential for life?

YES! b/c it is needed for the activity of other glands in our body

11

the pituitary develops from 2 different sources:
1. an up growth from the ___
2. a down growth from the _

1. upgrowth from ECTRODERM OF THE STOMODEUM (from roof of mouth)
2. downgrowth from NEUROECTODERM OF THE DIENCEPHALON (from floor of brain)
(to remember, think your mouth is in the anterior and your brain is more posterior)

12

stomodeum is a depression between the brain and the pericardium in an embryo, and is the precursor of the __ and the ___ lobe of the pituitary gland

mouth
anterior

13

the pituitary gland (hypophysis) is of _ origin (single/double)

double

14

the fact that the pituitary is from double origin explains why the pituitary is made of 2 completely different types of tissue. The glandular portion is the

anterior portion aka adenophysis (came from ectoderm of stomodeum)

15

the nervous portion of the pituitary is the

posterior (the one that came from the nueroectoderm of the diencephalon)

16

during the 3wk of development a diverticulum called ___ arises from the ___ and grows towards the brain

Rathke's pouch from roof of the stomodeum (primitive mouth)

17

diverticulum

an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body

18

as Rathke's pouch moves away from the roof of the stomodeum and towards the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe), it loses attachment from the mouth. this pouch then forms the

adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)

19

pars tuberalis is part of the ___ lobe of the pituitary gland, and wraps the pituitary stalk in a highly vascularized sheath.

anterior

20

Diabetes insipidus is characterized by the secretion of large amounts of __ urine because of a deficiency of __

dilute
ADH

21

ADH is secreted from the

posterior pituitary

22

1. Which pituitary produces hormones
2. which one is larger

1. anterior pituitary (think fl-A-t peg) = Anterior pituitary
2. anterior is larger (75%)

23

which pituitary hormones are acidophils and which are basophils?

B-FLAT = basophils
PEG = acidophils

24

__ stimulates growth of Graafian follicles

FSH
Graafian follicles means ovarian follicles

25

ADH controls the rate of _ reabsorption in the kidneys

water

26

ADH and oxytocin are _ in the posterior pituitary

STORED AND SECRETED

27

Corticotropin (ACTH) controls

secretion of adrenocortical hormones, which in turn affect metabolism of glucose, proteins and fats

28

oxytocin stimulates what 2 glands

mammary and uterus

29

a 50yr old female diagnosed with anaplastic thyroid cancer removed her thyroid. the Dr. accidentally excised the PT glands. what could result:

decalcification of bones
weakening of bones
muscle convulsions

muscle convulsions

decrease in PTH = tetany, muscle weakness due to lack of available calcium in the bone.

30

body's smallest endocrine glands are the

parathyroid (pea sized)

31

where are the parathyroid glands? on the anterior or posterior surface?

posterior surface of thyroid gland

32

most people have how many PT glands working together as a single gland

4

33

PTH is a regulator of

Ca and PO4 levels in EXTRACELLULAR fluid

34

major target of PTH is

kidney and bone

35

does the PT gland have a capsule?

yes a fibrous capsule

36

each PT gland has what 2 types of cells

Chief and oxyphil cells

37

the function of _ cells in the PT is undetermined

oxyphil

38

Chief cells in the PT act to ___ calcium levels and ___ phosphate levels

raise calcium
decrease phosphate

39

innervation to the PT is via

postganglionic sympathetic fibers of the superior cervical ganglion.

40

the superior pair of PT glands receive blood from the __

superior thyroid artery from external carotid

41

the inferior pair of PT glands receive blood from the

inferior thyroid artery (from thyrocervical trunk)

42

the thyrocervical trunk is short and thick and arises from the first portion of the _ artery

subclavian artery

43

the thyrocervical trunk divides almost immediately into what 3 branches:

inferior thyroid, suprascapular, and transverse cervical (or superficial cervical) arteries

44

the PT glands develop from which pharyngeal pouches?

3rd and 4th

45

the pineal gland lies at the back of the __ ventricle in the brain

3rd

46

the pineal gland produces what hormone

melatonin

47

melatonin role in human

regulation of sleep wake cycle body temp regulation and appetite

48

the innervation to the parotid gland and its sheath comes from all of the following nerves except which one

auriculotemporal nerve
great auricular nerve
facial nerve
glossopharyngeal nerve

facial nerve

49

largest salivary gland

parotid

50

parotid is purely ___ gland

serous

51

is the parotid gland below or above the external auditory meatus

below

52

parotid gland lies __ behind/in front of ramus of mandible

behind

53

the parotid gland lies in front of what muscle

sternocleidomastoid

54

the parotid is divided into the _ and _ lobes

deep and superficial lobes

55

the deep and superficial lobes enclose which cranial nerve

Facial nerve VII
a portion of the parotid lies superficial to the mandibular ramus = superficial lobe and a portion lies deep to the mandibular ramus (deep lobe)

56

the parotid gland is drained by the ___

Stensen's duct

57

Stensen's duct crosses the __ muscle and pierces the __ muscle to open into the vestibule of the mouth opposite the ___tooth

masseter
buccinators
max 2nd molar

58

parotid sheath and overlying skin are innervated by the

auriculotemporal nerve (branch of V3)
great auricular nerve (c2, C3 from cervical plexus).

59

Paraympathetic secretomotor fibers from the inferior salivatory nucleus of the _ nerve supply the parotid gland

glossopharyngeal

60

Sympathetic innervation to parotid originates from the

external carotid nerve plexus

61

Does the facial nerve innervate the parotid?

no. they pass thru the gland

62

the __ arteries supply the parotid

external carotid artery and its terminal branches

63

the lymphatic vessels drain the parotid lymph nodes and the deep cervical lymph nodes. T/F

true

64

the part of a developing gland destined to become responsible for its functioning is called the
nephron/follicle/adenomere/lobule

adenomere
Adenomeres are secretory subunits of lobules. They consist of all the secretory cells that release their products into a single intralobular duct.

65

the __ is the functional unit in salivary glands

adenomere

66

In exocrine glands ___ are the largest subunits and are separated by CT septa

lobes

67

In exocrine glands ___ are subunits of the lobes and are separated by thin extensions of the septa

lobules

68

__ are secretory subunits of lobules that consist of all the secretory cells that release their product into a single intralobar duct

adenomeres

69

___ are smaller secretory subunits that is a spherical collection of secretory cells surrounding the blind-ended termination of a single intercalated duct

acini/alveoli

70

an adomere is composed of what kinds of ducts and cells?

intercalated duct
striated duct
glandular cells

71

intercalated ducts are lined by __ cells found in intercalated ducts

low cuboidal

72

striated ducts contain a lot of __ responsible for electrolyte and water transport during secretion.

mitochondria

73

both the intercalated duct and striated ducts of exocrine glands are lined by _ cells

low cuboidal

74

glandular cells in exocrine glands synthesize

glycoproteins

75

salivary glands are divided into 2 groups: major and minor. there are _# major glands. name them

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

76

which salivary gland is purely serous

parotid

77

the submaxillary gland is another name for which gland

submandibular

78

which salivary glands are mixed glands

sublingual and submandibulary (submaxillary)

79

the ___ gland is a mixed gland of both serous and mucous but with the serous predominating

submandibular

80

the ___ gland is a mixed gland of both serous and mucous but with the MUCOUS predominating

sublingual

81

where are the minor salivary glands located?

lips, tongue, cheek, and hard palate.

(to remember that it is not the soft palate think anterior mouth)

82

the von Ebner's glands are associated with what on the tongue? are they mixed/serous/mucous?

purely serous (unlike the other minors that are mucous) and are associated with the circumvallate papilla

83

a patient complains of abdominal pain. tests reveal bilateral tumors that are secreting excessive catecholamines. Which glands is involved?
a. anterior pituitary
b. pancreatic islets (Langerhans)
c. adrenal medulla
d. parathyroids
e. adrenal cortex

c. adrenal medulla

84

stimulation of the adrenal medulla causes the release of large quantities of __

epinephrine and NE

85

the two ___ are flattened, somewhat triangular shaped resting on the superior poles of each kidney at the back of the abdomen.

adrenal glands

86

the adrenal ___ releases sex steroids, mineralcorticoids, and glucocorticoids

cortex

87

glucocorticoids are produced and released under the control of ___ from the pituitary,

ACTH

88

glucocorticoids has what influences on metabolism

promoting the breakdown of protein and the release of fat and sugars in the bloodstream. (think glucagon)

89

mineralcorticoids located n the adrenal ___ have what effect

cortex
enhance sodium reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys

90

the adrenal ___contains modified nerve cells and releases more epinephrine/norepinephrine?

medulla
80% epinephrine (adrenaline)
20% NE (noradrenalin)

91

when are E and NE released?

in emergency situation or intense emotions.

92

effects of E and NE

increase rate and strength of heart contractions, raise the blood sugar level, elevate BP, and increase breathing (fight or flight)

93

1. the adrenal medulla develops from what germ layer?
2. the adrenal cortex develops from what germ layer?

1. neuroectderm
2. mesoderm

94

Neuroectoderm is a specialized group of cells that differentiate from the ectoderm. Neural crest cells are a specialized group of cells developed from the neuroectoderm that migrate from the crests of the neural folds and disperse to specific sites with the __

mesenchyme

95

neural crest cells also influence a special type of mesenchyme called ___, to form dental tissues

ectomesenchyme

96

the portion of the pituitary gland that does NOT arise from the hypothalamus is the:
pars nervosa/neurohypophysis/adenohyphophysis/infundibulum

adenohypophysis

97

the pars nervosa is aka

posterior lobe/neurohypophysis

98

T/F the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), infundibulum and pituitary stalk all arise from the hypothalamus

true

99

the anterior lobe is formed from an invagination of the __

pharyngeal epithelium (Rathke's pouch)

100

the __ pituitary is a classic gland composed predominantly of cells that secrete protein hormones

anterior

101

1. the __ pituitary is not really an endocrine gland. It is rather a large collection of axonal projections from the hypothalamus that terminate behind the anterior pituitary
2. it also forms the __ which suspends the anterior gland from the hypothalamus

posterior
pituitary stalk (infundibular stalk)

carries axons from the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus down to the posterior pituitary where they release their neurohypophysial hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, into the blood.
This connection is called the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract or hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract.

102

The pars tuberalis is part of the anterior/posterior lobe of the pituitary

anterior

103

Pars ___comprises the majority of the anterior pituitary and is where the bulk of pituitary hormone production occurs.

distalis

104

the tropic hormones are hormones that

affect the activity of other ENDOCRINE GLANDS

105

Name the tropic hormones

(FSH, LH, ACTH, and TSH)

106

the hypothalamus makes _ hormones

releasing or inhibiting

107

are prolactin and growth hormone considered tropic hormones?

NO. so remember that PEG: acidophilic and not tropic. FLAT are tropic and basophilic (look at T = tropic and then look at A and know its the opposite = B)

108

secretory cells of the anterior pituitary are categorized into two groups according to their staining properties:
1. acidophils (acid stain) are __
2. basophils (basic stain) are _

1. Acidophils: prolactin and GH (PEG)
2. Basophils: FLAT

"B FLAT APEG"

109

which one is not an exocrine gland:
sweat glands/prostate gland/bile producing glands of liver/pituitary glands/lacrimal glands/gastric glands

pituitary glands
exocrine glands = secretions pass into DUCTS that lead ultimately to the EXterior of the body.

110

Endocrine glands secrete their products (hormones), directly into the ___ rather than thru a __

blood
duct

111

exocrine glands have what 3 types of excretion?

mucous (secrete mucous = mucin + water)
serous = enzymes
mixed (mucous and enzymes)

112

what kinds of excretions do the buccal glands produce?

mucous (mucin and water)

113

what kinds of excretions do the pancreas and uterine glands produce?

serous (enzymes)

114

what kinds of excretions does the esophagus glands produce?

mucous (mucins and water)

115

what kinds of excretions do the cardiac and pyloric glands produce?

mucous (mucins and water)

116

what kinds of excretions do the nasal glands, paranasal sinuses, submandibular, and sublingual, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi produce?

mixed
(notice all the respiratory ones are mixed)

117

Exocrine glands have 3 modes of secretion: merocrine, apocrine, holocrine.

1. ___ glands secretions are excreted via exocytosis from secretory cells. It is the most common manner of secretion. The gland releases its product and no part of the gland is lost or damaged
2. Give examples of these

merocrine
Salivary glands
Pancreatic glands
and certain sweat glands

118

Exocrine glands have 3 modes of secretion: merocrine, apocrine, holocrine.

___ secretion their products and a small portion of the cytoplasm
ex?

apocrine
they bud their secretions off through the plasma membrane producing membrane-bound vesicles in the lumen

ex mammary glands fat droplet secretion
true apocrine glands are mammary glands, responsible for secreting breast milk

119

Exocrine glands have 3 modes of secretion: merocrine, apocrine, holocrine.

___ is when the entire cell with the secretory product is released
ex?

Holocrine secretions are produced in the cytoplasm of the cell and released by the rupture of the plasma membrane, which destroys the cell and results in the secretion of the product into the lumen.

sebaceous glands of skin and nose: its product of secretion (sebum) is released with remnants of dead cells

120

which is the most damaging types of secretions of exocrine glands?

Holocrine secretion is the most damaging type of secretion, with merocrine secretion being the least damaging and apocrine secretion falling in between

halocrine - most
apocrine - middle
merocrine = least

"HAM"

121

Structure of exocrine duct systems can be unbranched or branched.

1. simple glands are __
2. compound glands are?

1. unbranched -simple
2. branched = compound

122

the sweat glands are unbranched ducts (simple) or branched (compound) ducts?

simple unbranched ducts

123

the pancrease exocrine ducts are unbranched ducts (simple) or branched (compound) ducts?

branched compound ducts

124

there are 3 shapes of the secretory units of exocrine glands: tubular, acinar (alveolar), and tubuloacinar (tubuloalveolar):

a cylindrical lumen surrounded by secretory cells are

tubular

125

there are 3 shapes of the secretory units of exocrine glands: tubular, acinar (alveolar), and tubuloacinar (tubuloalveolar):

dilated sac like secretory units are

acinar

126

there are 3 shapes of the secretory units of exocrine glands: tubular, acinar (alveolar), and tubuloacinar (tubuloalveolar):

intermediate in shape or having both tubular and alveolar secretory units are

tubuloacinar

127

are sweat glands tubular, acinar (alveolar), and tubuloacinar (tubuloalveolar

tubular

128

are sebaceous and mammary glands tubular, acinar (alveolar), and tubuloacinar (tubuloalveolar

acinar

129

are the major salviary glands tubular, acinar (alveolar), and tubuloacinar (tubuloalveolar

tubuloacinar

130

the sweat glands are:
1. branched/unbranched ducts
2. tubular/acinar/tubuloacinar

unbranched ducts w/ tubular shape (cylincrical lumen surrounded by secretory cells)

131

the pancreas acinar cells are
1. branched/unbranched ducts
2. merocrine/apocrine/holocrine

1. branched
2. merocrine (released with membrane bound secretory granules)

132

the major are either __ or __ secretions (mucous/serous/mixed)

pure serous (parotid)
or mixed (submandibular and sublingual)

no pure mucous

133

patient has a large round face, a buffalo hump and central obesity. she has a history of hypertension and insulin resistance as a result of increased cortisol. Which anterior pituitary hormone controls the production and secretion of cortisol?

ACTH adenocorticotropic hormone

134

ACTH adenocorticotropic hormone is aka

corticotropin (remembrer tropin hormones released from pituitary)

135

ACTH stimulates the adrenal __cortex/medulla?

cortex (adenocorticotropic hormone)

136

ACTH stimulates the secretion of

glucocorticoids ex cortisol

137

does ACTH have much control over Aldosterone (the other steroid hormone from the adrenal cortex)

very little control

138

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is released in response to many types of __

stress

139

CRH is inhibited by

glucocorticoids (negative feedback loop)

140

In females FSH initiates _

ovarian follicle development and secretion of estrogen in the ovaries

141

In males FSH initiates _

stimulates sperm production in the testes (spermatogenesis)

142

In females LH stimulates

secretion of estrogen by ovarian cells to result in ovulation and stimulates formation of the corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone.

143

Both LH and FSH stimulate the secretion of

estrogen

144

__ stimulates the secretion of estrogen AND progesterone

LH

145

In males, LH stimulates the

interstitial cells of Leydig in testes to secrete testostron

146

sperm production is stimulated by___
testosterone production is stimulated by _
LH/FSH

sperm = FSH (think S for sperm)
and LH for testosterone via Leydig cells (think L for Leydig cells)

147

TSH regulates thyroid and the _ of iodine and synthesis and release of thyroid hormones

uptake

148

pancreatic cancer patient has a tumor that presses on the ampulla of Vater causing him GI problems bc the tumor obstructs the common bile duct and the main excretory duct of the pancreas which is known as

duct of Wirsung

149

the pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ located __ to the stomach on the posterior abdominal wall

posterior

150

The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum. It has no specific delineating anatomical structures. Organs are retroperitoneal if they have peritoneum on their __ side only. Structures that are not suspended by mesentery in the abdominal cavity and that lie between the parietal peritoneum and abdominal wall are classified as retroperitoneal

anterior

151

Structures that lie behind the peritoneum are termed "retroperitoneal". Organs that were once suspended within the abdominal cavity by mesentery but migrated posterior to the peritoneum during the course of embryogenesis to become retroperitoneal are considered to be __retroperitoneal organs.

secondarily

152

Mnemonic to remember retroperitoneal organs?

S = Suprarenal glands (aka the adrenal glands)
A = Aorta/IVC
D = Duodenum (second and third segments [some also include the fourth segment] )
*P = Pancreas (only head, neck, and body are retroperitoneal)
U = Ureters
*C = Colon (only the ascending and descending colons, as transverse and sigmoid retain mesocolon)
K = Kidneys
E = Esophagus
R = Rectum
SAD PUCKER (ones with * are secondary)

153

the pancreas is covered by tissue capsule that partitions the gland into

lobules

154

delta cells of pancreas secrete _ that acts __ to __secretion of insulin and glucagon

somatostatin, acts locally within the Islets to DEPRESS secretion of both insulin and glucagon

155

the degeneration of the islets leads to

DM

156

pancreatic exocrine cells are __ cells

acinar

157

acinar cells of pancreas are full of

secretory granules containing digestive enzymes secreted into the lumen of the acinus

158

the endocrine function of pancreas works in both fasting and feeding T/F

true
glucagon and insulin

159

insulin affects the metabolism of?

fats, proteins and carbs (all of the things we eat!)

160

the main pancreatic duct is the

duct of Wirsung

161

the duct of Wirsung begins at the _ of the pancreas and joins the common bile duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater) before opening up into duodenum

tail

162

Santorini's duct is?

aka accessory pancreatic duct = opens separately into duodenum

163

Bartholin's gland?

located to the left and right of the opening of the vagina

164

radiolucency inferior to the mandibular canal. dentist performs a sialogram and rules out a true cyst and diagnoses a static bone cavity (Stafne bone cyst). which of the salivary glands creates the depression in bone that radiographically gives this appearance.

submaxillary gland (submandibular)

165

what gland is located in the submandibular triangle

submandibular gland

166

submandibular triangle borders?

inferior mandible + posterior and anterior bellies of digastric muscle

167

the submandibular gland is _ and _ to the ramus of the mandible

medial and inferior to

168

submandibular gland wraps around the _ muscle and forms the 2 lobes: superior and deep

mylohyoid

169

the deep/superior lobe is the bulk of the submandibular gland

deep

170

1. the parotid lobes are separated by _
2. the submandibular gland lobes are separated by

1. facial nerve (CN VII)
2. mylohyoid muscle

171

the __ branch of the facial nerve courses superficial to the submandibular gland and deep to the platysma

marginal mandibular

172

the submandibular duct (Wharton's duct) arises from the deep portion of the gland and crosses the ___ nerve in the region of the sublingual gland and terminates adj to the base of the sublingual frenulum

lingual nerve (remember it ends in the sublinual frenulum to also remember the nerve)

173

the __ nerve wraps around Wharton's duct, starting lateral and ending medial to the duct, while the __ nerve parallels the submandibular duct running inferior to it

lingual nerve
CN XII hypoglossal nerve

174

blood supply to the submandibular gland

facial and lingual arteries,
facial and lingual veins
lymph into submandibular and deep cervical lymph nodes

175

Innervation of submandibular gland

PNS via superior salivatory nucleus of the facial nerve pass thru submandibular ganglion via chorda tymphani nerve and lingual nerve. postganglionic PNS fibers pass to the gland via lingual nerve. Pstganglionic sympathetic reach the gland as a plexus of nerves around the facial and lingual arteries

176

T/F the thymus is a prominent feature of the middle mediastinum during infancy and childhood

False
it is part of the SUPERIOR mediastinum

177

T/F the thymus is the central control organ for the immune system

True

178

after puberty the thymus begins to diminish in size and by adulthood it is usually replaced by __ tissue

adipose.

179

after you are an adult and thymus has diminished in size and replaced by adipose, does it continue to produce T lymphocytes

yes

180

thymus is part of the endocrine system however its primary function is that of

lymph organ

181

lymphocytes originate from _ in red bone marrow

hemocytoblasts (stem cells)

182

hemocytoblasts that enter the thymus mature and develop into activated T lymphocytes. They then divide into 2 groups:

ones that re-enter the blood are transported to secondary lymphoid tissues such as lymph nodes and spleen

those that remain in the thymus gland and are the source of future generations of T lymphocytes

183

name the 3 cofactors important in thymic hormones

zinc vitamin B6 and vitamin C

184

why is thymus considered endocrine gland

This gland secretes hormones that are commonly referred to as humoral factors and are important during puberty. The role of these hormones is to make sure a person develops a healthy immune system.

185

the most critical mineral involved in thymus gland function and thymus hormone action is

zinc

186

_is involved in virtually every aspect of immunity

zinc

187

the thymus has no ___ lymphatics or ___

no afferent lymphatics or lymphatic nodules

188

other lymphoid organs besides the thymus develop from

mesenchyme

189

the thymus is the only lymph organ that has a __ embryonic origin

double = lymphocytes derived by hematopoetic stem cells (mesenchyme)
Hassall's corpuscules (epithelium) are derived from endoderm of the 3rd pharyngeal pouch

190

the arteries supplying thymus? innervation?

derived from internal mammary, superior thyroid, and inferior thyroid arteries and innervated by the vagus nerve

191

the major areas of antigen contact and lymphocyte activation are the primary/secondary lymphoid organs?

secondary

192

which is not a secondary lymphoid organ:
spleen/tonsils/lymph nodes/thymus gland/MALT

thymus gland

193

the only primary lymphoid organs are (2)

thymus gland and bone marrow

194

the thymus is superficial/deep to the sternum and located in the _ mediastinum

deep
superior

195

Hassal's corpuscule are in the

inner medulla of thymus

196

thymus gland consists of an outer __ that is primarily lymphocytes

cortex

197

the thymus gland has an inner ___ that contains lymphocytes and Hassal's corpuscule

medulla

198

the thymus is the MASTER ORGAN IN IMMUNOGENESIS in the ___

young and believed by some (but not all) to monitor the total lymphoid system throughout life

199

do lymphocytes respond to antigens and pathogens while in the thyroid

no. they do so outside of the thymus after they have matured

200

thymus also produces a hormone called __ which stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes in other lymphatic organs

thymosin

201

thymus produces thymic lymphopoietic factor (TLF) = confers immunological competence on thymus dependent cells and induces

lymphopoiesis

202

defects in chromosome ___ may cause a baby's thymus gland to be smaller than normal (Hypoplastic)

22 = diGeorge's syndrome

203

both major and minor salivary glands are composed of both _and_

epithelium and CT

204

Epithelial/CT cells in salivary glands line the duct system and produce saliva

epithelial

205

the CT of salivary glands are divided into the _ and the _

capsule = outer portion surrounding the entire gland and the septa = divides inside into small and larger lobes

206

epithelial cells that secrete saliva are called _ cells

secretory

207

the two types of epithelial cells that are secretory are

mucous and serous

208

secretory cells are found in a group aka

acinus (acini = pleural) = like grapes cluster

209

each acinus consists of a single layer of _ cells surrounding a lumen where the saliva is deposited after being produced by secretory cells

cuboidal

210

serous/mucous/acini have large amounts of RER, free ribosomes, prominent Golgi, secretory granules.

serous

211

in cells that produce digestive enzyme in serous acini are called

zymogen granules

212

1. __ acini are spherical with narrow lumen
2. _ acini are tubular with wider lumen

1. serous
2. mucous

213

_ acini have both mucous cells surrounding the lumen and a SEROUS DEMILUNE or CAP OF SEROUS CELLS superficial to the group of mucous secretory cells

mixed acini

214

serous demilumes secrete into the

convoluted intercellular space bw mucous cells

215

the serous demilumes (caps) are associated with what salivary glands and _ and _

submandibular and sublingual and esophagus and trachea

216

largest endocrine gland is the

thyroid gland

217

thyroid has 2 lobes (R and L) joined by a thin band called the

isthmus

218

the thyroid gland is _ shaped

H shaped

219

thyroid is located anterior to the upper part of the __

trachea, near its junction of the larynx with trachea

220

thyroid follicles are filled with

colloid

221

colloid is made up of

thyroglobulin and iodine = storage form of T3 and T4

222

overproduction of TSH (anterior pituitary) can lead to

Grave's disease

223

thyroid epithelial cells are the

follicles

224

bw the thyroid follicles are

parafollicular or C cells that secrete calcitonin

225

the _ is a canal that connects the thyroid gland to the tongue during development

thyroglossal duct

226

in the adult, the proximal end of the thyroglossal duct remains as the

foramen cecum on the tongue

227

4 year old has tumor in hypohysis secreting excessive GH. what is the outcome if no treatment?
pituitary gigantism/acromegaly?
what does that mean will happen to him?

pituitary gigantism = delays ossification of epiphyseal cartilage (non fusion of epiphysis). tumor prior to adolescence

note: acromegaly occurs after epiphyses of the LONG bones have fused with the shaft.
tumor AFTER adolescence = fusion of epiphysis

228

a GH deficiency resulting in early replacement of epiphyseal cartilages by bone is called

pituitary dwarfism

229

Hypophysis cerebri

both the pituitary (ant and post)

230

the posterior lobe of pituitary has myelinated/unmyelinated nerve fibers

unmyelinated

231

__ of the hypophysis is the major secretory part of the gland

pars distalis/adenohypophysis

232

___ stain strongly with acid dyes

acidophils

233

___stain strongly with basic dyes

basophils

234

alpha cells are acidophils/basophils of pituitary

alpha cells

235

beta cells are acidophils/basophils of pituitary

basophils = beta cells

236

the pars _ and _ have no proven function in mammals

intermedia and tuberalis

237

adrenal glands: venous drainage flows directly into the __ on the right side and into the __ on the left side

R: IVC
L: left renal vein

238

arterial blood supply to adrenals

branches from renal artery, aorta, and inferior phrenic artery

239

the R/L adrenal gland is more crescentic and the _ one is more pyramidal

right = pyramidal
left crescentic

240

how many parts in adrenal gland

2 parts = cortex and medulla

241

cortex 3 zones

zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculate
zona reticularis
GFR

242

aldosterone and other mineralcorticoids are made in which part of adrenals

zona glomerulosa
(cortex top layer)

243

glucocorticoids = regulate sugar levels, BP, response to stress and illness are in what layer ex cortisol

zona fasciculate

244

androgens (male hormones) made in?

zona reticularis
remember: salt==> sugar==> sex (to remember layers) + GFR

245

androgens impt

development of genitals, 2ndary sex characteristics such as armpit hair, genital hair, adult type body odor, and help speed up growth. both M and F produce them

246

the androgen produced in greatest quantity by the adrenal cortex are

dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione === portions made into testosterone

247

the most potent androgen is

testosterone

248

the _ of the adrenals are really modified nervous tissue and function in a manner similar to POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC cells bc stimulation of this area releases large quantities of epinephrine and NE

medulla

249

direct sympathetic stimulation produces the same effect of releasing E + NE but when the adrenal medulla does this the effect lasts

longer

250

t/f with or without the adrenal medulla or sympathetic nerves the adrenal medulla would still be stimulated

true

251

1. Meibomian glands aka tarsal glands are sebaceous glands located at the
2. function?

1. rim of the eyelid
2. protect eyes from drying out

252

Meibomian glands release their entire secretory cell. this type of gland is referred to as:
merocrine/apocrine/holocrine/endocrine

holocrine

253

sebaceous glands are exocrine glands associated with

hair follicles = derived from ectoderm

254

3 exocrine glands within the integumentary system

sebaceous glands, mammary and sweat glands

255

sebaceous glands of skin are holocrine/apocrine/merocrine

holocrine

256

mammary glands are holocrine/apocrine/merocrine

apocrine

257

sweat glands can be holocrine/apocrine/merocrine

merocrine or apocrine

258

name the endocrine glands

hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, thyroid, PT, thymus, adrenal, gonads, islets of Langerhans

259

the major salivary glands are tubuloalveolar glands. t/f

true

260

the only adult salivary glands that are purely serous

parotid and von Ebner's glands

261

Bartholin's gland vs bartholin's duct

Bartholin's gland = vagina
Bartholin's duct = sublingual salivary duct

262

which salivary gland can have either numerous small ducts that open onto the floor of the mouth or a single main excretory duct = Bartholin's duct

sublingual

263

the sublingual gland is located under the __

oral mucosa in the floor of the mouth

264

the sublingual gland lies between the mandible on one side and the _ and _ muscles on the other

genioglossus and hyoglossus

265

the sublingual gland lies on or below the mylohyoid?

ON (ABOVE)

266

the _ gland wraps around the mylohyoid and the _ gland site on top of the mylohyoid

sumbmandibular wraps
sublingual sits on top

267

Rivinus's ducts = ?

the 12-20 ducts that drain the sublingual ducts along the sublingual fold on the floor of the mouth

268

the sublingual gland innervation

PNS secretomotor fibers from superior salivatory nucleus of the facial nerve. nerve fibers pass to the submandibular ganglion via chorda tympani nerve and the lingual nerve. postganglionic PNS pass to the gland via lingual nerve. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers reach the gland as a plexus of nerves around the facial and lingual arteries

269

blood supple of the sublingual gland

sublingual branch of the lingual artery and submental branch of facial artery

270

the sublingual gland veins drain into

facial and lingual veins. lymph drains into submandibular and deep cervical lymph nodes

271

sometimes the numerous sublingual ducts (Rivinus's ducts =12-20ducts) join to form a single main excretory duct (Bartholin's duct) that usually empties into the _

submandibular duct

272

von Ebner's glands around circumvallate papilla main function is to

rinse food away from papilla after food has been tasted by the taste buds

273

which portal venous system is critical for proper endocrine function:
renal/hepatic/hypophyseal

hypophyseal

274

a ___ venous system occurs when a capillary bed drains into another capillary bed thru veins

portal
both capillary beds and bv connecting them are part of the portal venous system

275

portal venous system is uncommon bc majority of capillary beds drain into the _ and not into another capillary bed

heart

276

portal venous systems are considered venous bc the bv that connects the 2 capillaries are either

veins or venules

277

where are the 3 places we find portal venous system

hepatic, hypophyseal and renal portal systems

278

blood supply to the pituitary is from the

R and L superior hypophyseal arteries and from R and L inferior hypophyseal arteries which are branches of the internal carotid

279

the veins of the pituitary drain into the

intercavernous sinus

280

the neurohypophysis contains abundant axons whose cell bodies are located mainly in the _ and _ nuclei of hypothalamu

paraventricular (oxytocin) and supraoptic (vasopressin) nuclei

remember each hormone only gets 1 v!

281

glandular portion of pituitary =

adenohypophysis

282

nerve portion of pituitary =

neurohypophysis

283

adenohypophysis origin (germ layer and location)

oral ectoderm = ROOFof stomodeum

284

neurohypophysis origin (germ layer and location)

neuroectoderm (floor of diencephalon)

285

pars nervosa and infundibulum = _ lobe

posterior

286

pars distalis, pars tuberalis, pars intermedia = _ lobe

anterior
(all the pars except the nervosa)

287

what structures on a histological slide can be seen in the submandibular and sublingual glands but NOT the adult parotid?

serous demilunes

288

in mixed acini do the mucous cells or the acini form the tubules?

mucous!
they are capped by serous cells that secrete bw the mucous cells' intercellular space = called serous demilunes

289

demilunes secrete mucous that contains the enzyme _ that degrades bacterial cell walls

lysozymes

290

T/F all of the major salivary glands are COMPOUND TUBULOALVEOLAR GLANDS

TRUE = means their ducts branch repeatedly (compound) and their secretory portions are tubular and composed of small sacs called ALVEOLI or ACINI

291

myoepithelial cells aka

basket cells

292

myoepithelial cells are contractile cells that lie bw the _ and _ of secretory cells

BM and plasma membrane

293

myoepithelial cess possess many __ which squeeze on the secretory cells and move their products toward the excretory ducts

actin-microfilaments

294

thyroid epithelial cells (follicular cells) responsible for the synthesis of thyroid hormone are arranged in spheres called thyroid follicles. these follicles are filled with colloid T/F

True

295

colloid is composed of

thyroglobulin + Iodine and is the storage form of the T3 and T4 hormones

296

when the pituitary gland releases __ the colloid becomes active

thyrotropin (TSH)

297

T3 and T4 COLLECTIVELY are called

thyroid hormones

298

in the blood almost all the thyroid hormones are bound/free?

they are lipids so they are bound to plasma proteins such as thyroid binding globulin (TBG)

299

follicular cells remain __ at times of low thyroid hormone need

inactive

300

metabolically INACTIVE follicular colloid will stain ___

acidophilic (stains strongly with acid stains)
this was a boards question

301

metabolically ACTIVE follicular colloid will stain ___

basophilic

in order to remember: you know flAt = Basophilic, and PEG = acidophilic. A and B go together here. also goes together here. If Active = Basophilic. if inactive = acidophilic

302

a pt has pituitary adenoma. as it increases in size which CN will It likely affect?

CN II = pituitary adenomas affect VISION and may cause vision loss. = optic nerve pressure = blindness

303

the seat of the sella tursica of the sphenoid bone is called the _ that holds the pituitary (hypophysis cerebri)

hypophyseal fossa

304

the posterior saddle of sella tursica is

the dorsum sellae

305

the anterior saddle of sella tursica is the

tuberculum sellae

306

the dorsum sellae is terminated laterally by the

posterior clinoid process

307

the crista galli is a sharp upward projection of the _ bone in the midline where the _ attaches

ethmoid, falx cerebri

308

the cribiform plate consists of perforated areas on either side of the __ and transmits __ nerve bundles

crista galli, olfactory

309

the infratemporal fossa lies __ to the temporal fossa and the infratemporal crest on the greater wing of the sphenoid bone

inferior

310

the floor of the sella tursica is the roof of which sinus

sphenoid sinus

311

blood supply to pituitary is from

R and L superior hypophyseal arteries and R and L inferior hypophyseal arteries = branches of internal carotid

312

oxytocin and vasopressin transported to pituitary for storage by way of:
myelinated fibers/unmyelinated/both

unmeylinated

313

oxytocin and ADH are transported down the axons and stored in axon terminals called

Herring bodies in the neurohypophysis

314

the hypothalamus synthesizes/stores/releases oxytocin and ADH

ONLY SYNTHESIZES. they are stored AND released by the posterior pit

315

the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal tract refers to the way in which secretions by the __ are controlled by hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting factors.

anterior pituitary

316

__ is unique among the pituitary hormones in that it is under tonic inhibitory control by the hypothalamus

prolactin

317

if you cut the pituitary stalk what would happen the hormones

prolactin would increase but all other hormones would decrease

318

prolactin is inhibitory factor is

dopamine

319

hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular neurons secrete

dopamine