NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

NBDE PART 1 BIOCHEM/PHYSIOLOGY > NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in NBDE ANATOMICAL SCIENCES: Reproductive System Deck (133):
1

place in order that sperm travels upon ejaculation:
spongy penile urethra
ductus deferens
prostatic urethra
epididymis

seven up: Seminiferous tubules
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Nothing
Urethra
Penis


epididymis ==> ductus deferens ==> prostatic urethra ==> spongy urethra

2

sperm is formed in the __ and then passes along the ___

testes ==> ductus deferens

3

ductus deferens joins the duct of the _ to form the ejaculatory duct

seminal vesicle

4

during ejaculation the sperm combines with secretions from the _ and _ to form seminal fluid

seminal vesicles and prostate glands

5

the testes are in the scrotum. The _ one is usually higher than the _ by half an inch

right

6

the testis is capped by the

epididymis

7

the epididymis is a C shaped cord like tube about 20 feet long located in the __

scrotum

8

the epididymis emerges from the tail as the

ductus (vas) deferens

9

the ductus deferens and its surrounding vessles and nerves form the __ which runs upward to the level of the pubic tubercle of the pubic bone, passes thru the inguinal canal and then turns sharply to enter the pelvic cavity

spermatic cord

10

the ___ duct penetrates the prostate gland to open into the __

ejaculatory duct
prostatic urethra

11

stereocilia line the epididymis on the inside. are they motile?

non motile, long microvilli covering the pseudostratified columnar epithelium that lines the inside. serve to facilitate the passage of nutrients from the epithelium to the sperm by increasing surface area

12

sterocilia ar epresent in the epididymis and the

ductus (vas) deferens = also lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium

13

the bladder is above/below the prostate

right above

14

the prostate sits bw the

bladder and erectile tissue

15

the bladder, prostate are anterior or posterior to the anus and rectum

anterior

16

the bladder and prostate are anterior/posterior to the testis, scrotum and epididymis

posterior

17

the seminal vesicles lie bw

the rectum and the bladder

18

the seminal vesicles are anterior or posterior to the bladder

posterior

19

cooper's ligaments are fibrous bands each attached to musculature and function to support:
each testis/each ovary/each body of the epididymis/each brest

breast

20

the mammary glands (breasts) are located on either side of the anterior chest wall over the _ and _ muscles

pectoral and anterior serratus

21

mammary glands are specialized ACCESSORY glands that secret milk. they are formed from many small tubules grouped into a lobule. several lobules constitute a lobe, each of which has an_ duct

interLOBAR

22

many of the interlobar ducts combine to form a ___ duct, which terminates in the nipple

lactiferous

23

arterial supply to breast

internal thoracic artery and intercostal arteries. the axillary artery also via the lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial branches

24

several chains of lymph nodes drain different areas of the breast and axilla. what lymph node chains drain most of the breast and anterior chest

pectoral

25

what lymph node chains drain most the arm

brachial

26

what lymph node chains drains the posterior chest wall and part of the arm

subscapular

27

what lymph node chains drain the pectoral, brachial, and subscapular nodes

midaxillary

28

what lymph node chains drains mammary lobes

internal mammary lobes

29

___ causes dimpling ("peau d'orange") of the overlying skin and nipple retraction

breast cancer

30

the suspensory ligaments of the breast are aka __ and are strong FIBROUS running from the dermis of the skin to the deep layer of superficial fascia thru the breast

Cooper's ligaments

31

myoepithelial cells are special type of smooth muscle cell that are _ shaped

star

32

what glands contain myopepithelial cells

mammary, sweat, lacrimal, and salivary glands

33

the inguinal canal is an oblique passage thru the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall and is present in both males and females
1. in females its content is the _

round ligament of the uterus. leads to the labium majus

34

which structure does not pass thru the inguinal canal in males
spermatic cord
ductus deferens
testicular veins
ejaculatory duct
lymph vessels

ejaculatory duct

35

in both the M and F the inguinal canal transmits the _ nerve

ilioinguinal

36

ducuts deferens (vas): cord like, conveys sperm from the _ to the _

epididymis to ejaculatory duct

37

Each ductus deferens, at the ampulla, joins the duct from the adjacent __(one of the accessory glands) to form a short ejaculatory duct. Each ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland and empties into the urethra.

seminal vesicle

38

structures in the spermatic cord

Vas deferens
testicular artery, veins, and lymph vessels, autonomic nerves

39

testicular artery is a branch of the _ and supplies the

abdominal aorta, testes and epididymis

40

the pampiniform pluxus is an extensive _

venous plexus that leaves the testis and turns into a single testicular vein.

41

testicular lymph vessels go thru the inguinal canal and over the posterior abdominal wall to reach the

lumbar lymph nodes on the side of the aorta at the level of the first lumbar vertebrae

42

cystitis refers to

urinary bladder inflammation

43

cystitis is most commonly caused by a UTI. it affects F more than males bc the difference in length of the

urethra
4cm in women vs 20cm in men
therefore invader must travel longer distance to get to the bladder. eliminating urine by the male tends to flush the urethra before an organism can reach their bladder

44

in the women the urethra opens bw the

clitoris and vagina

45

the male urethra is divided into 3 parts:
prostatic, membranous and penile (spongy).

which is the widest and most dilatable portion

prostatic

46

the male urethra is divided into 3 parts:
prostatic, membranous and penile (spongy).
which is the shortest and least dilatable

membranous

47

the male urethra is divided into 3 parts:
prostatic, membranous and penile (spongy).
which is the longest and narrowest portion

penile (spongy)

48

the bulbourethral glands open into which part of the urethra in men

penile (spongy)

49

the ureter purpose

transport urine

50

urine is stored and concentrated in the

bladder

51

the 3 accessory glands that produce most of the serum? which are paired glands

seminal vesicles = paired
bulbourethral glands/cowper's gland = paired
prostate glands

52

the seminal vesicles are paired sacs at the base of the

bladder

53

the bulbourethral glands aka

Cowper's glands

54

Coopers gland vs Cowper's gland

coopers in breast cowpers is male accessory gland

55

the Cowper's glands are located inferior to the

prostate glands

56

the prostate gland is shaped like an inverted pyramid and lied under the __

bladder with the apex pointing down.

57

emerging from the neck of the bladder, the urethra runs vertically thru the _ and exits in front of the apex

urethra

58

the 2 types of glands in the prostate are

periurethral glands = in central zone surrounding the urethra
main glands = peripheral zone

59

all the accessory glands in the male open into the prostatic urethra and secrete what enzyme?

acid phosphatase, fibrinolysin, and proteins.

60

prostatic secretions makes up _% of the semen

25

61

where does fertilization of oocyte occur: ovaries/ampulla/uterus

ampulla

62

ova (female germ cells) and female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) are produced in the

ovaries

63

uterine tubes aka

fallopian tubes

64

site of reception, retention,and nutrition of fertilized ovum

uterus

65

secrete lubricating fluids into the vestibule and vaginal opening during coitus

vestibular glands

66

secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina and are homologous to bulbourethral gland in males

Bartholin's glands

67

the fallopian tubes have fimbriae at end =

long fringes

68

after ovulation fimbriae beat back and forth to hep

guide the egg into the fallopian tube

69

once inside the fallopian tube tiny hairs called _ push the egg toward the uterus

cilia

70

4 parts of the uterus

ampulla (site of fertilization)
fimbriae
infundibulum
isthmus

71

mons pubice

a rounded mass of fatty tissue situated over the pubic bone. forms the anterior portion of the vulva. It divides into the labia majora (literally "larger lips") on either side of the furrow

72

vulva

female external genital organs

73

the 2 tubes on the top side of the penis are called the

corpus cavernosum

74

the _ produce sperm and testosterone

testes

75

where sperm mature

epididymis

76

transport sperm during ejaculation up inside the spermatic cord to urethra

vas ductus deferens

77

produces semen (the fluid that carries sperm). Semen protects sperm from vagina acidity

prostate

78

the _ secrete the majority of the fluid in semen

seminal vesicles (alkaline and rich in fructose)

79

secret fluid that lubricates male urethra and end of penis

bulbourethral glands (Cowper's gland)

80

runs thru prostate and opens into urethra, receives sperm

ejaculatory ducts

81

name the paired organs of the male repro system

testes, epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts

82

the male sex organ is the

penis

83

penis reaches its full size during

puberty

84

Glans of the penis is the

head.

85

in uncircumscised men the glans is covered with pink moist tissue called

mucosa

86

covering the glans is the foreskin (prepuce) in circumcised men, the foreskin is removed and the mucosa on the glans transforms into

dry skin

87

2 columns of tissue running along the sides of the penis. Blood fills this tissue to cause an erection

corpus cavernosum

88

a column of sponge like tissue running along the front of the penis and ending at the glans penis, fills with blood during an erection keeping the urethra open

corpus spongiosum

89

the urethra runs thru the corpus __

spongiosum

90

when sperm cells are formed they migrate in an immature state to the long narrow structure attached to the back of each testicle called the

epididymis

91

sperm are produced in the __ in the testes

seminiferous tubules

92

sperm is produced in the testes and stored outside the testes until ejaculated. t/f

true

93

the most important androgen is

testosterone

94

androgens synthesized and secreted by

interstitial cells of Leydig found in the interstitium of the testis bw the seminiferous tubules

95

ovaries are supported by the

broad ligaments of the uterus

96

all of the ovary's blood and lymph vessels enter at the

hilum

97

the bulk of the ovary is the

stroma

98

the main function of the ovaries is to

produce a mature ova!

(not fertilization)

99

the ovaries produce what steroid hormones

estrogen and progesterone

100

progesterone (along w estrogen) maintains the

lining of the uterus necessary for a successful pregnacncy

101

ovulation takes place in the _ of the menstrual cycle

middle

102

a Graafian follicle ruptures to release its ovum which enters the

uterine tube

103

the empty follicle fills with blood and regresses into the

corpus luteum

104

if the ovum is not fertilized the corpus luteum shrinks into a small mass of collagenous tissue called

the corpus albicans.

105

if the ovum is fertilized the _ will persist and continue to secrete progesterone

corpus luteum

106

the _ is the head of the sperm

acrosome

107

the head is made up of the acrosome and the

nucleus

108

the head is attached to its tail (sperm) by the

basal body

109

the mitochondria in sperm are located in the head/body

body

110

the egg (ovum) outer surface is called the

corona radiata

111

underneath the corona radiate in the ovum is the

zona pellucida

112

the ovaries are homologous to the _ in the male

testes

113

T/F each ovary lies in a shallow depression named the ovarian fossa, on the lateral wall of the pelvis. this fossa is bounded above by the external iliac vessels, in front by the obliterated umbilical artery, and behind by the ureter

true

114

the ovaries are behind or in front of the ureter

behind

115

ovaries are supported by the

broad ligament of the uterus

116

all the ovary's blood and lymph vessels and nerves enter at the

hilum

117

beneath the ovaries epithelium is a _ and a _

cortex and a medulla at its core

118

the bulk of the ovary is the supporting structure called the

stroma

119

the main function of the ovaries is

to produce MATURE ova

120

the cortex/medulla of the ovaries contains the ova

cortex

121

the ova begins as

primordial oocytes surrounded by a layer of flat granulosa cells

122

at puberty the granulosa cells that surround the ova begin to multiply and form the

multilayered theca interna that secretes androgen in response to LH

123

grnulosa cells have aromatase that converts

androgens produced by the theca interna into the necessary estrogens

124

the surrounding stromal cells of the granulosa cells form the

theca externa

125

a split in the theca interna appears and expands to form a fluid filled cavity that pushes the oocyte to one side. the follicle is now called a

Graafian follicle

126

ovulation takes place in the _ of each menstrual cycle

middle

127

in ovulation the Graafian follicle

ruptures and releases the ovum which enters the uterine tube

128

the empty follicle fills with blood and regresses into

the corpus luteum

129

if the ovum is fertilized the corpus luteum will continue secreting

progesterone to maintain the pregnancy

130

if the ovum is not fertilized the corpus luteum shrink into a small mass of collagenous tissue called the

corpus albicans

131

oogenesis leads to the production of how many ovum/egg cells from the primary oocyte

1

132

in spermatogenesis: production of how many ovum/egg cells from the primary oocyte

4 sperm

133

when the primary oocyte divides into 4 daughter cells, 3 of them come out much smaller than the fourth. the smaller cells are called

polar bodies = eventually disintegrate leaving only 1 larger ovum as the final product of oogenesis