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Flashcards in NBEO: Boards: Histology Deck (62):

Normal Cholesterol Values:

1. Total Cholesterol

2. Triglycerides

3. LDL

4. HDL

1. Less than 200

2. Less than 150

3. Less than 130

4. 40 or higher


Proteins: Integral Proteins (in the Plasma membrane)

1. Structural

2. Receptors

3. Channels

4. What are Peripheral Proteins?

1. Interact w/Cholesterol. Maintain membrane structure

2. Bind small molecules, proteins, or enzymes. Cell-Cell Communication. Can act as enzymes as well.

3. Passive transporters (move ions with their concentration gradient) or active pumps (move ions against concentration gradient)

4. Attach to the outer surface of the Plasma membrane. Act as HORMONE RECEPTORS and Cell Surface markers (like Antigens)



1. Where are they found in the plasma membrane?

2. Where are Glycolipids and Glycoproteins normally found on the Plasma membrane?

3. What is the Glycocalyx?
a. Purpose?

1. Covalently attached to lipids or proteins that are embedded w/in the Plasma Membrane.

2. usually found on the outer surface of the Plasma Membrane

3. Refers to all sugar components on the external surface of the cell (so Glycolipids and glycoproteins)

a. PAA: Protection, Adhesion, Absorption



1. Purpose

2. Nucleolus: Purpose

3. RNA (All made from DNA w/in the Nucleus)
a. tRNA
b. mRNA
c. rRNA

4. Transcription

5. Translation

1. Has genetic info (DNA as Chromosomes): Place of DNA replication, mRNA and tRNA Transcription

2. Part of the Nucleus w/DENSE CHROMATIN and the stuff needed to MAKE rRNA (main component of RIBOSOMES)

3. a. Reads the mRNA during TRANSLATION and puts AAs onto the PEPTIDE CHAIN that is formed

b. Template for the AA sequence during Translation

c. Combines w/Proteins. Makes Ribosomes. Structural proteins are made in the Cell CYTOSOL and enters the nucleus via Nuclear Pores. Ribosome is made then transported back into the Cytosol to work in Protein translation.

4. DNA to mRNA

5. mRNA to protein


Number of Nuclei

1. Most cells

2. What cells are BINUCLEAR? (CHE)

3. What cells are MULTINUCLEAR? (SO)

4. What cells are ANUCLEAR? (1)

1. Have one nucleus

2. Cardiac Muscle, Hepatocytes, and Epithelial cells of the URINARY TRACT

3. Skeletal Muscle Cells and Osteoclasts

4. RBCs



1. Ribosomes
a. % rRNA
b. % Protein
c. Purpose?
d. Type in Eukaryotic Cells?
e. Type in Prokaryotic Cells?

f. Cytoplasmic Basophilia: WHAT IS IT?

2. What does Aminoglycosides and Tetracyclines act on (What ribosomal subunit)?

3. What do Macrolides act on?

1. a. 65%
b. 35%
c. Translation
d. 100S Ribosomes (Small (40S) and Large (60S) subunits)
e. 70S Ribosomes (30S and 50S subunits)

f. As the number of Ribosomes increase during cell growth, the Cytoplasm gets MORE ACIDIC, binding better to BASIC STAINS (Hematoxylin) causing the Cytoplasm to look MORE BLUE/PURPLE. In neurons, cytoplasmic basophilia in the RER are called NISSL SUBSTANCE

2. 30S Subunit

3. 50S Subunit


Cytoplasm (2): Ribosomes Continued...

1. Free Floating Ribosomes
a. Location
b. Purpose

2. What is a POLYSOME?

3. Bound Ribosomes
a. Attach to what?
b. Purpose?

1. a. Cytosol
b. Help translate proteins needed for CELL Growth, Cell structure, Mitosis, etc.

2. Multiple Ribosomes attach to one mRNA to MAXIMIZE EFFICIENCY of PROTEIN TRANSLATION!

3. a. ER --> RER
b. Make proteins that are released OUTSIDE the CELL (EXOCYTOSIS) and can cause CYTOPLASMIC BASOPHILIA due to increased number of Ribosomes needed for production of Proteins that aid in EXPORT of PROTEINS outside the CELL!!


Cytoplasm (3): ER

1. RER
a. What do they surround and what are they connected to?
b. ALWAYS involved in PRODUCTION of what?

2. SER
a. Continuous with what?
b. Where are they found and what do they do at these locations? (3)

1. a. Nuclear envelope. Connected via its lumen (Cistern) w/the Perinuclear space of the NUCLEUS

b. in MAKING PROTEINS that are EXPORTED OUT OF THE CELL. (also do the INITIAL GLYCOSYLATION of PROTEINS...non-ordered addition of sugars to proteins)

2. a. RER
b. Adrenal Cortex (Steroid Production)

Liver Cells: Hepatocytes (Storage and breakdown of Glycogen AND DETOXIFICATION of LIPID SOLUBLE DRUGS)

Muscle Cells: sER (Sarcoplasmic Reticulum): (Sequesters and Controls Release of Ca2+ that's needed for MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS)


Cytoplasm (4)

1. Golgi Apparatus
a. Purpose?

2. Lysosomes
a. What are they?
b. Primary Lysosomes?
c. Purpose?
d. Secondary Lysosome?
e. What happens to 2ndary lysosomes?

3. What is Tay-Sachs Disease?

4. Mitochondria

a. Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

1. a. Works w/RER. Helps modify proteins to be exported out of the cell. Proteins here form either a Secretory Granule or a Lysosome.

2. a. Vesicles w/a Membrane that are pinched off the Golgi.
b. Filled w/Digestive Enzymes
c. Help Digest old and worn out organelles w/in the cell and Particles that enter the cell via phagocytosis.

d. When a Phagocytic vacuole and a primary lysosome fuse.

e. They're exocytosed or go thru partial degradation forming a RESIDUAL BODY w/in the cell (which are inactive enzymes and they may gain pigment over time known as lipofuscin)

3. Autosomal Recessive disorder due to accumulation of residual bodies. Seen in 1st year of life, and u die by age 2.

a. CHERRY RED MACULA! (90% of cases)

4. Powerhouse. Mitochondrial DNA via MATERNAL INHERITANCE (Endosymbiotic Theory...evolved from a Separate Prokaryotic Organism)

a. ON Dz. RARE. Due to Maternal Mitochrondrial DNA mutations.



1. Microfilaments (Actin)

2. Microtubules (Tubulin)

3. Intermediate Filaments

1. Parts that form the core of MICROVILLI (fingerlike projections that increase cell surface area for absorption and diffusion).

2. Tubulin = protein at core of microtubules, flagella, and cilia. Make spindle apparatus that pulls chromosomes away from each other during cell division. Cilia and flagella help in cell motility

3. Connect nuclear membrane to plasma membrane, allowing transport for organelles w/in cytoplasm and giving resistance against external pressure on the cell.


Cell junctions

1. Gap Junctions

2. Tight Junctions (Zonula Occludens)

3. Adherens Junctions
a. Zonula Adherens
b. Macular Adherens (Desmosomes)

4. Hemidesmosome
a. Damaged Hemidesmosomes cause what in the eye?

1. Cytoplasms of cells are connected via CONNEXONS (BIG ROLE in CONDUCTION in Cardiac and Nerve tissue)

2. Belt...wraps around the cell. Good barrier. (Blood-Aqueous and Blood-Retinal Barriers in the Eyes)

3. made of fibers. Interweave cells together giving structural Support

a. Belt like junction like Zonula Occludens, but has a NARROW SPACE b/w Cells made of Tonofilaments and Mucoproteins that pull cells close together

b. "Spot Weld." Concentrated support in ONE LOCATION!

4. Connect Basal Cell Layers to underlying Basement membrane. **ONLY CELL JUNCTION that DOES NOT CONNECT Cell-to-cell and thus has NO STRUCTURAL SUPPORT!

a. RCEs!!


Epithelium: Simple Epithelium

1. Simple Squamous

2. Simple Cuboidal

3. Simple Columnar

a. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium


1. Single layer. Thin cells. Close contact w/underlying BM. Use: DIFFUSION of GAS and other substances. (Ex: Inner lining of BVs)

2. Single layer. Slightly thicker. Box-like cells. JOB: SECRETION (Ex: Thyroid Gland)

3. Thicker and Longer. PROTECTION. Specialized for Absorption (GI TRACT except for esophagus). (Microvilli found on APICAL BORDER...increase SA for Absorption)

a. Simple columnar epithelium where NUCLEI are seen at different levels w/in cells giving it a STRATIFIED APPEARANCE. (Found in RESPIRATORY TRACT!!)

4. Secretion (Cuboidal)
Absorption (Columnar)
Diffusion (Squamous)


Stratified Epithelium

1. Stratified Squamous Non-Keratinized Epithelium
a. What is it?

2. Stratified Squamous Keratinized Epithelium
a. What is it?
b. Purpose?

3. Stratified Cuboidal
a. What is it?
b. Purpose?

4. Stratified Columnar
a. What is it?
b. Purpose?

5. Transitional Epithelium
a. What is it?
b. Purpose?

1. a. Thick, Protective tissue. Prevents antigens from entering cell. Thickness --> Poor O2 Diffusion.
b. CORNEA, CONJUNCTIVA, Esophagus, Vagina

2. a. Keratin: strong covering that protects against dehydration and mechanical stress.
b. Cells produce keratin, then nucleus ruptures and cell dies...Ex: THICK SKIN on PALM of the HAND

3. a. 2 layers of Cuboidal Epithelium
b. Larger ducts (sweat glands): acts as a CONDUIT

4. a. 2 layers of columnar epithelium
b. Aids in PROTECTION (Largest Ducts: like the anus)

5. a. 3-7 layers of Stratified Epithelium found in the BLADDER
b. Distension, Collapse, and Protection against Urine


Exocrine Glands

1. Holocrine
2. Apocrine
3. Merocrine

4. Salivary Gland
a. Sublingual Glands
b. Submandibular Glands
c. Parotid Glands

5. Sjogren's SYNDROME: What is it?

6. Pancreas
a. Exocrine Pancreas
b. Endocrine Pancreas

1. Entire cell w/product is shed into the lumen of the ducts. (MEIBOMIAN GLANDS)

2. Product secreted into membrane bound vesicle at the APEX of the cell which is then pinched off into the lumen. (GOBLET CELLS and GLANDS of MOLL)

3. Most common form of Exocrine secretion where products are simply exocytosed out of the cell. (MAIN LACRIMAL GLAND is an example)

4. Tubuloacina Exocrine Gland. Secretions = SEROUS or MUCOUS
a. Mainly MUCOUS SECRETIONS (deep w/in CT of Oral Cavity)


c. Mainly SEROUS SECRETIONS. Largets Salivary Gland. Duct = STENON's DUCT.


6. a. Main digestive enzymes for Carbs, Protein, and Lipid digestion. Transported to DUODENUM via Pancreatic Duct

b. Insulin, Glucagon, and Somatostatin (from ISLETS of LANGERHANS)...have fenestrated capillaries.


Endocrine Glands

1. Difference from Exocrine Glands?
a. Ducts?

1. Invagination of an epithelial surface, but is complete and the surface reforms.
a. Nope.
b. Graves' Dz and Diabetes Mellitus


Endocrine System

1. Thyroid Gland
a. Follicular Cells
b. Parafollicular Cells
c. Signs of Hyperthyroidism?

2. Parathyroid (4 glands on Posterior surface of Thyroid)
a. Chief Cells: Purpose

1. a. Simple Cuboidal Cells: Line follicles of thyroid and make INACTIVE THYROID HORMONE (Colloid) which is turned into T3 and T4 after getting signaled by TSH!

b. Oval cells b/w Follicles. Make CALCITONIN! (Decreases Ca2+ by INHIBITING OSTEOCLAST ACTIVITY)

c. Nervous, Heart palpitations, heat intolerance, weight loss, Hair loss (Esp. EYELASHES!)

2. a. Make PTH...increases Blood calcium by STIMULATING OSTEOCLASTS


Endocrine System:

1. Adrenal Gland
a. Parts?

b. Cortex: from Outer Zone to Inner Zone

c. Inner Medulla Contains CHROMAFFIN GRANULES that make what?

1. a. Inner Medulla and Outer Cortex

b. Zonula Glomerulosa (ALDOSTERON: Mineralocorticoid)
Zonula Fasciculata (CORTISOL...Glucocorticoid)
Zonula Reticularis: ANDROGEN (SEX)

c. Make EPINEPHRINE (85%), Norepi (15%)


Endocrine System:

1. Pituitary Gland
a. Found where?

2. Anterior Pituitary:
a. Formed from what?
b. ACIDOPHILES (Alpha Cells:Stain Pink/Red due to EOSIN)
i. Somatotrophs
ii. Mamotrophs

c. BASOPHILS (Beta Cells: Stain blue/purple due to Hemotoxylin)
i. Gonadotrophs
ii. Thyrotrophs
iii. Corticotrophs

3. Acidophil TUMORS: Cause what?

4. BASOPHIL TUMORS cause what?

1. a. w/in SELLA TURCICA in body of SPHENOID BONE!

2. a. Tissue in ROOF of the MOUTH (RATHKE's POUCH!)...pinches off and fuses w/Hypothalamus.

b. i. Secretes GH (puberty)
ii. PROLACTIN (Makes BREAST MILK...works w/Oxytocin which does milk secretion)

c. i. Make FSH and LH
ii. Make TSH
iii. Make ACTH


4. too much ACTH...CUSHING's Dz.


Endocrine System: Posterior Pituitary

1. Developed from what?
a. Does it produce hormones?

2. Hypothalamus has what 2 NUCLEI that produce WHAT?
a. How does this stuff get to the Posterior Pituitary?

3. What is the PARS NERVOSA?
a. What does it do w/Hormones?

1. From NEURAL TISSUE from the floor of the DIENCEPHALON (and stays attached to the hypothalamus)
a. NO! but stores them and releases them.

2. Paraventricular and Supraoptic Nuclei that make ADH and OXYTOCIN
a. thru the Infundibular Stem into the Pars Nervosa of the Posterior Pituitary

3. Back part of the Posterior Pituitary
a. Stores them in vesicles (HERRING BODIES).


Connective Tissue

1. What is Connective Tissue Proper?

2. What is Specialized Connective Tissue? (BBC)

3. Both of these are derived from what?

1. Something used for structure and support. It's packed around every major organ in the body.

2. Blood, Bones, Cartilage

3. from MESENCHYME (subtype of Mesoderm)


Connective Tissue Proper

1. What is it made of?

2. Dense CT is characterized by what?

3. Loose CT is characterized by what?

4. Difference b/w CT and EPITHELIAL TISSUE?

1. ECM w/Fibers and Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)

2. Lots of Fibers w/few Cells

3. Fewer Fibers and More cells

4. CT has MORE FIBERS, and Less Cells!


CT Cells

1. Fibroblasts: What do they do?

2. Plasma Cells: What do they do?

3. Mast Cells: What do they do?

4. Macrophages: What do they do?
a. Brain?
b. Liver?
c. Blood?

5. HISTAMINE Release during Anaphylactic shock results in what occurring?

6. Pericytes: What are they?
a. What do they do?
b. Pericyte Damage contributes to what?

1. Main cell of CT. Purpose: Make and Maintain FIBERS and Ground Substance w/in CT Proper

2. Mature B Lymphocytes: Make Antibodies

3. They hold Granules w/HEPARIN and HISTAMINE. When released, they lead to VASCULAR VASODILATION and SMOOTH MUSCLE CONSTRICTION

4. Help w/Phagocytosis and act as antigen presenting cells.
a. Microglia
b. Kupffer Cells
c. Monocytes until cells leave the blood, then called a Macrophage

5. Itching, redness, wheezing, and hypotension

6. Undifferentiated CT cells. Attach to Capillaries and can replace CT in times of need.
a. Help maintain blood flow thru capillary walls


Fibers of CT:

1. Collagen: What is it?
a. Number of types of Collagen?

2. Elastic Fibers
a. Made of what?
b. Location?
c. Major cause of wrinkles?

3. Reticular Fibers
a. What are they?
b. What do they do?

1. Main CT Fiber. most common protein in the body.
a. 8 different types

2. a. Made of Elastin
b. Found w/in the DERMIS of the skin. They allow recoil when tissue is pulled.
c. Damage to ELASTIN by HYALURONIC ACID and UV Light

3. a. Immature CT
b. Forms framework of Lymphoid and Myeloid Tissues that encompass most of the Interstitial Tissue of Organs.



1. What are they?

2. Attracted to what?

1. Long, negative charged polysaccharides contain a core of disaccharide repeating units. They are RIGID.

2. Attracted to WATER.

*Being rigid and attracted to water lets them maintain structural integrity in cells.


Types of GAGs

1. Hyaluronic Acid
a. What is it?
b. Why is it UNIQUE?
c. Found in HIGH Concentrations where?

2. Chondroitin Sulfate
a. Makes up what % of GAGs w/in the CORNEA?
b. Also found in what 3 areas?

3. Keratin Sulfate
a. Makes up what % of GAGs w/in the CORNEA?
b. Also found in what 2 areas?

4. Heparin
a. Found w/in Granules in what cells?
b. Aids in what?

5. PROTEOGLYCANS are comprised of what?

1. a. Repeating Disaccharide made of Glucuronic Acid and N-Acetylglucosamine.

b. DOES NOT have any SULFATE, and is NOT bound to a protein as a proteoglycan (as with most GAGs)
c. in the VITREOUS! (Forms a scaffolding for collagen fibrils)

2. a. 33%
b. Bone, Cartilage, Heart Valves

3. a. 66%
b. Bone and Cartilage

4. a. in MAST CELLS

5. of a sulfated GAG bound to a protein.


Specialized CT

1. Blood
a. Made of what 3 things?

1. Plasma (55%); RBCs (45%), and WBCs and Platelets (<1%)


Specialized CT: Blood (1)

1. Plasma
a. What is it?
b. Consists of what?
c. What's the MOST IMPORTANT PROTEIN in PLASMA and what does it DO?
d. What other Plasma proteins are there and what do they do? (3)

2. COMPLEMENT PROTEINS are activated w/in Blood Plasma are activated by what?

1. a. Non-cellular portion of the blood
b. 80% Water, 18% Protein, 2% Fats and other molecules
d. i. Alpha: Made in LIVER; Helps w/BLOOD CLOTTING
ii. Beta: Used in Complement Pathway of the IMMUNE SYSTEM
iii. Gamma: Includes Different classes of ANTIBODIES (Ig G,A,M,E,D) made by plasma cells

2. By Antigen/Antibody Complexes that occur w/Ig GAMED.


Specialized CT: Blood (2)

1. RBCs
a. Purpose?
b. Key Features?

1. a. Transport O2 to tissues and remove waste products (CO2 via exhalation in the lungs)
b. Small, Anuclear Cells; Biconcave Disk Structure; Contains Hemoglobin w/Fe (5%) surrounded by 4 Globulins (95%). Fe2+ binds O2, CO2, and CO; Lifespan of 120 days then recycled in the spleen. Iron reused by the SPLEEN and the Globulins are transported to the gall bladder as pigment that is used in the formation of Bile.


Specialized CT: Blood (3)

1. WBCs
a. Originate from what?
b. Classified as 1 of 2 things.

c. Granulocytes: (BEN)

d. AGRANULOCYTES: Include what?

2. Most common to LEAST common (Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas)

1. a. from primitive cells in BONE MARROW
b. Granular or Agranular

c. Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils. All are Polymorphonuclear or Segmented Nuclei

d. Lymphocytes and Monocytes (Mononuclear Cells)

2. Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils


Specialized CT: Blood (4)

1. Platelets
a. Makes what Enzyme?
b. What happens after this?
c. What Activates Platelets?

b. It Converts Prothrombin --> THROMBIN which acts as an Enzyme, and Converts FIBRINOGEN --> FIBRIN
c. Tissue Injury


Specialized CT: Blood (5)

1. Lymphocytes
a. 2 Major categories?
b. What are they?
c. Involved in FIGHTING WHAT?
d. They also help fight what?

2. T Lymphocytes
a. Originate in what?
b. Mature in what?
c. Mediate the CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE by doing what?
d. These cells that are mediated differentiate into what?

3. B Lymphocytes
a. Originate and Mature in what?
b. Mediate what?
c. Can potentially become what cells?

1. a. B and T lymphocytes
d. Chronic Bacterial Infections when PMNs are worn out.

2. a. Bone Marrow
b. Thymus
c. by regulating B cells and Macrophages
d. Helper T Cells, Cytotoxic T Cells, and Suppressor T Cells

3. a. in the BONE MARROW
b. Humoral Immune Response
c. Plasma Cells and Produce Abs.


Specialized CT: Blood (6)

1. Hemopoietic Stem Cell (Hemocytoblast) can become the Following:
a. Proerythroblast -->
b. Myeloblast -->
c. Megakaryoblast -->
d. Lymphoblast -->
e. Monoblast -->

1. a. Erythrocyte
b. Progranulocyte --> BEN (Granulocytes)
c. Megakaryocyte --> Thrombocyte
d. Lymphocyte --> B Cell and T Cell (Agranulocytes)
e. Monocyte



1. Storage Site for what?

2. Attachment Point for what 3 things?

3. Protection for what?

4. Produces what?

5. Provides what 2 things?

6. What is ECM?

1. Calcium, Phosphate and other minerals

2. Tendons, Ligaments, and Muscle

3. of Internal Organs (Brain, heart, lungs, etc)

4. Blood cells w/in Bone Marrow

5. Structural framework and an ability to resist mechanical stress.

6. Calcified Bone. No nutrients can diffuse thru it. It's Made, matures, and degrades before being renewed, at a steady rate.


Bone (2)

1. Osteocytes
a. What are they?
b. Purpose?

2. Osteoblasts
a. What do they do?
b. What happens to them?

3. Osteoclasts
a. What are they?
b. What do they do?

1. a. Mature Bone CELLS. Surround the Central Artery

2. a. PRODUCE the MATRIX (Lamellae) in a CONCENTRIC RING around the Central Artery; Remove Ca2+ from blood and put it into bone.
b. The matrix starts to surround and trap them, and they will become OSTEOCYTES!

3. a. Large, Phagocytic Cells


Bone (3): Ca2+ Homeostasis

a. Purpose?
b. What else do they do?

3. PTH
a. What does it do?

1. a. Decrease Blood Ca2+ Levels by INHIBITING OSTEOCLASTS
b. Also inhibit TUBULAR REABSORPTION of Ca2+ and Phosphorous in the Kidney, causing increased Ca2+ loss in the urine.

3. a. Increase Blood Ca2+ levels by STIMULATING OSTEOCLASTS


Bone (4): Cartilage

1. What is it?
a. Made up mainly of what Kind of Collagen and what GAG?
b. Hydrophilic/Phobic?

2. 2 Types of Growth:
a. Appositional Growth
b. Interstitial Growth

1. Avascular CT
a. Type II Collagen and Chondroitin Sulfate
b. Hydrophilic and well-hydrated...allows for flexibility

2. a. Chondrogenic cells --> Chondroblasts which secrete OSTEOID causing cartilage tissue to INCREASE in width from the outside surface.

b. Chondrocytes undergo MITOSIS, leading to INCREASED TISSUE Growth from w/in. (like blowing up a balloon)



1. Develops from what neural tissue?

2. Skeletal Muscle
a. Voluntary/Involuntary?
b. Striated/Non Striated?
c. Number of Cells?
d. Locations?

3. Cardiac Muscle
a. Voluntary/Involuntary?
b. Striated/Non-Striated?
c. Controlled by what?

4. Smooth Muscle
a. Voluntary/Involuntary?
b. Striated/Non-Striated?
c. Locations?

1. Mesenchyme (from Mesoderm)

2. a. Voluntary
b. Striated
c. Multi-Nucleated
d. EOMs, tongue, skeleton

3. a. Involuntary
b. Striated
c. Binucleated; Controlled by ANS

4. a. Involuntnary
b. Non-striated; Central located nuclei
c. Digestive tract, BVs, Bronchioles, ducts in urinary and reproductive systems, IRIS SPHINCTER and DILATOR muscles.



1. Unipolar
a. Location?

2. Bipolar
a. Location?

3. Multipolar
a. Location?

4. Axon Hillock
a. Purpose?
b. What is not found here?

1. a. Dorsal Root Ganglion

2. a. Retina and Olfactory Mucosa (1 axon, 1 dendrite connected to one cell body)

3. a. MOST COMMON; Several Dendrites and 1 axon from cell body (Ex: Motor Neurons)

4. a. where APs are generated.
b. Nissl Bodies (rER)


Nerve Impulses

1. Orthograde: define

2. Retrograde: Define

3. Orthograde Degeneration
a. What can cause it?
b. What happens?

4. Differences b/w Oligodendrocytes vs. Schwann cells
a. Why can PNS neurons REGENERATE?

1. Impulse: Cell Body to Axon

2. Impulse: Axon to Cell Body

3. a. PRP --> Axon death
b. Starts with Cell Body death, then leads to Axon Death.

4. Oligo: CNS; can wrap around multiple axons; Schwann: PNS, myelin for one axon.
a. We think it's due to Schwann cells having a BM (NEURILEMMA) which is a GLYCOPROTEIN that allows it to regenerate.


Integumentary System: Epidermis

1. Type of Epithelium?
a. Number of layers?

2. Stratum Corneum
a. Purpose?

3. Stratum Lucidum
a. What is it and where is it located?

4. Stratum Granulosum
a. What are they?

5. Stratum Spinosum
a. Initial site of production of what?
b. What do they contain?
c. Mutations in Mitotic Cells can cause what?

6. Stratum Basal
a. Single layer of what cell type?
b. Forms what?
c. ONLY layer of what in the epidermis?
d. takes ~ how long to reach the stratum corneum?
e. UV exposure to this layer may cause what?
f. What is wrapped around these cells?

1. Stratified Squamous epithelium
a. 5 layers

2. a. Mature Keratin: Has DESMOSOMES and Zonula Occludens Junctions: PROTECTION

3. a. Anuclear Cells; Found in THICK SKIN ONLY

4. a. Non-functional, non-mitotic cells. Granular look to them because of IMMATURE KERATIN (Keratohyaline)

5. a. Keratohyaline Production
b. Desmosomes ONLY. (No zonula occludens)

6. a. Cuboidal Cells
b. BM
c. of MITOTIC Cells in the epidermis
d. ~ 2 wks
f. Melanocytes (contain MELANIN)...purpose: Absorb UV Light to protect epidermis. Tanning increases number of Melanosomes, NOT an increase in number of melanocytes.


Integumentary System: Epidermis: Dzs

a. happens secondary to an increase in what?
b. Most common what?
c. What is a Primary Malignant melanoma? Metastasizes most likely to what Location?
d. Most common etiologies for a SYSTEMIC Metastatic Tumor in the eye?

a. How common is it?
b. What can it mimic?

3. Ocular Albinism (eyes only) and Oculocutaneous Albinism (eyes and skin)
a. Deficiency in what enzyme?
b. Characteristcs of the RETINA?
c. VA?

1. a. number of Melanocytes
b. Intraocular cancer in the eye
c. starts in the eye; to the LIVER
d. Breast Cancer (women); Lung cancer (Men)

2. a. Rare, aggressive tumor (10% mortality rate)
b. a Chalazion (tumor of the meibomian glands)

3. a. Tyrosinase (Converts Tyrosine to Melanin)
b. Retinal Hypopigmentation, Foveal Hypoplasia, Iris Transillumination w/secondary photophobia, Nystagmus
c. 20/40-20/200


Integumentary System: Dermis

1. Open Nerve Endings
a. Ruffini Endings/Merkel Discs: Purpose
b. Nocireceptors: Purpose?
c. Cause of Pain in a CORNEAL ABRASION?

2. Encapsulated Nerve Endings
a. Mediate what 2 sensations?
b. What are found in the Dermis, and Mediate Pressure?

3. High vascularization: 2 Places
a. Cutaneous Plexus: Location
b. Subpapillary Plexus: Location

1. a. Touch
b. Pain
c. Nociceptors

2. a. Touch and Pressure
b. Pacinian Corpuscles (encapsulated in ~30 layers of CT)

3. a. B/w Dermis and Hypodermis
b. Under Pars Papillaris (Region of the dermis that's closest to the epidermis)


Integumentary System: Hypodermis

1. What is it?

2. What's found here? (3)

3. Purpose of Sweat Glands?

4. Purpose of Sebaceous Glands?

1. Adipose tissue => Insulator

2. Hair follicles, Sweat Glands, and Sebaceous Glands

3. Cool body via evaporation; create odors to attract peeps for sex

4. Oil secretion into hair follicles; gives nourishment to skin surface


Cardiovascular System: Layers of the Heart

1. Endocardium

2. Myocardia

3. Epicardium

4. Only artery that carries DEOXYGENATED BLOOD?

5. Only vein that carries OXYGENATED BLOOD?

1. Lines heart chambers (like tunica intima in BVs)

2. Heart Muscle (like Tunica Media in BVs)

3. Simple Squamous Epithelium over CT. Has Autonomic Nerves (like Tunica Adventitia)

4. Pulmonary Artery

5. Pulmonary Vein


Cardiovascular System: Histology of BVs

1. Endothelium

2. Tunica Intima

3. Tunica Media

4. External Elastic Lamina

5. Tunica Adventitia

a. What is the VASA VASORUM?

1. All BVs lined w/Simple SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM except BVs in LYMPH NODES (Cuboidal Cells)

2. Inner Wall (BV Endothelium) and Outer Wall (Internal Elastic Membrane (easier to see in arteries)). Hold Arteries and Veins.

3. Middle Layer; Has Smooth muscle in CIRCULAR Arrangement, Type 3 COLLAGEN, Elastic Fibers. THICKEST LAYER in ARTERIES; THIN in VEINS. Not seen in CAPILLARIES

4. Thin layer of ELASTIN. Found b/w Tunica Media and Tunica Adventitia

5. Outer Layer. Loose CT. Wraps vessels and fuses them w/CT that lies b/w BVs.



Cardiovascular System: Capillaries

1. What do capillaries consist of?

2. Non-Fenestrated
a. What is it?
b. Location? (2)

3. Fenestrated
a. What is it?
b. Location?

4. Discontinuous Capillaries
a. What is it?
b. Location?

1. Simple Squamous Epithelium; Thin Tunica Adventitia; No Tunica Media

2. a. MOST COMMON; Has an Endothelial cell lining w/ZONULA OCCLUDENS JUNCTIONS

3. a. Enothelial Cells line Lumen; NO TIGHT JUNCTIONS. This creates PORES.

4. a. Endothelial Cells not joined together; This lets large things to leave capillaries (like RBCs)


Cardiovascular System: Arteries vs. Veins

1. Lumen

2. Most prominent Layer in ARTERIES

3. and in VEINS?

1. Arteries: Arterial walls are thicker than the Lumen. Veins: Lumen: Semilunar FOLDS; Larger than WALLS

2. Tunica Media

3. Tunica Adventitia


Lymphatic System

1. How is Lymph Formed?

2. What happens to lymph fluid?

1. Blood Plasma passes thru Capillaries --> Hydrostatic Pressure w/in blood pushes some fluid out of the plasma into nearby tissue space. Some of this fluid empties into LYMPHATIC VESSELS. Once here, it's called Lymph fluid.

2. Lymph --> Lymph Ducts (Sm. Muscle) --> Left and Rt Subclavian Veins. Gets Filtered before going back into Venous Circulation.


Lymphatic System

1. What are they?

2. 3 Functions

3. Medial Lymphatics in the Orbit drain into what?

4. Lateral Lymphatics of the Orbit drain into what?

1. Encapsulated lymph tissue. ~500-600.

2. a. Make Lymphocytes and Antibodies
b. Filter Lymph, remove bacteria
c. Transport tissue fluid, limits exudates and edema.

3. into the Submandibular Lymph Nodes

4. the Parotid (Preauricular) Lymph Nodes


Lymphatic System: Associated Lymph Structures

1. Diffuse Lymphatics: What is it?

2. Nodules?

3. MALT (Mucous Associated Lymphatic Tissue)?
a. Made up of what?
b. What are PEYERs Patches?

1. areas with lots of T and B cells in Lamina Propria and Areolar CT that filters tissue fluid

2. Non-encapsulated areas w/B-Blast and Plasma cells in a diffuse lymphatic area. ALL Abs made here are for one SPECIFIC ANTIGEN!

3. Diffuse Lymphatic Tissue under moist membranes; Non-ecapsulated. Similar to Lymph Nodes: Protects tissue from stuff that have crossed cell membranes.

a. B and T Lymphocytes and Areolar CT Fibers
b. Large areas of MALT w/in SMALL INTESTINE


Lymphatic System: Lymphoid Organs

1. Tonsil
a. What is it?
b. Infections here can cause what?

2. Thymus:
a. Size and Function DECREASES after what?
b. Rt and Left Lobe: Divided into what 2 zones?
c. BVs enter and leave via what?
d. 3 Functions?

1. a. Diffuse Lymphatic Tissue, closely associated w/an Epithelial Surface
b. Swelling --> can form a Nodule or Tonsil (Very large nodule)

b. Peripheral Zone (Cortex) and Central Zone (Medulla...lighter)
c. the Septa
d. Location of Mature T Cells; Starts immune response; Helps in Hematopoiesis in the Fetus.


Lymphatic System: Lymphoid Organs

1. Thymus: Cella
a. Reticular Cells
b. Lymphocytes
c. Macrophages

2. Spleen
a. Red Pulp
b. White Pulp

1. a. Eosinophilic; Support lobules; Secrete stuff to help mature T-Cells; Form HASSALL's CORPUSCLES when they degenerate

b. In Medulla, some in cortex.

c. In Cortex and Medulla

2. a. Sinusoids: Filter unwanted stuff from blood.
b. T and B Lymphocytes and other immunological cells that start an immune response to antigens found in BLOOD!


Respiratory System

1. Upper Respiratory System

2. Lower Respiratory System

1. Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx

2. Trachea to lungs


Respiratory System: Upper

1. Nasal Cavity contains what?

2. Pharynx: Lined with what?

3. Larynx: has what?
a. Supported by a mix of what 2 things?

4. Paranasal Sinuses (3)

1. SSKE and Olfactory Epithelium

2. Connects nasal cavity to Larynx; Pseudostratified Epithelium or Stratified Squamous Epithelium; See posterior wall when Pt says "ahh"

3. Vocal folds. Control airflow and sound production
a. Hyaline and Elastic Cartilage

4. Frontal, Ethmoid, and Maxillary sinuses.


Respiratory System: Lower

1. Trachea Extends to what?

2. Primary bronchi

3. Secondary Bronchi

4. Tertiary Bronchi

5. Bronchopulmonary Segment

6. Bronchioles
a. What are Respiratory Bronchioles

7. Conduction Portion

8. Respiratory Portion

9. Alveoli

1. 10-12 cm. C-Shaped rings. C opening faces Posteriorly (towards esophagus). Extends to Second Costal Cartilage (2nd rib behind sternum)

2. Enters each lung

3. Lobar...extend into each lobe of the lung (3 right and 2 in left lung).

4. Secondary --> Tertiary. 10 in right lung and 8 in left lung (Segmental Bronchi)

5. Tertiary Bronchus. Each is the smallest independent unit of the lung.

6. No Hyaline cartilage found here. (Bronchi ONLY). + Pressure opens up these walls. Bronchioles --> Terminal Bronchioles --> Respiratory Bronchioles

a. Site of Gaseous Exchange...branch into alveolar ducts and sacs ~300 million

7. Nasal Cavity ---> Terminal Bronchioles

8. Respiratory Bronchioles ---> individual units of the lung

9. Type 2 Pneumocytes: Flat, Simple Squamous Cells. Gas exchange and MAKE SURFACTANT. Type 1 Pneumocytes CANT REGENERATE if damaged. Type 2 will replace them.


Digestive System

1. What nerve/system Stimulates secretions and motility of the GI tract?

2. What fibers cause a DECREASE in peristalsis and secretions when stimulated?

3. What are the 4 concentric layers of the lumen of the GI tract?

1. PSNS: Vagus Nerve

2. Sympathetic Fibers

3. Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis Externa, and Adventitia


Digestive System (2): GI Lumen

1. Mucosa
a. Made up of what 3 things?
b. Innervation? Controls what 2 things?

2. Submucosa
a. What is it?
b. Contains what?
c. Damage to Meissner's Plexus does what?

3. Muscularis Externa
a. Made up of what?
b. AUERBACH's PLEXUS: location; innervated by what; controls what?
c. What dz is due to a lack of development of Auerbach's Plexus, causing damage to the GI Tract?

4. Adventitia
a. What is it?

1. a. Epithelium, Lamina Propria, and Muscularis Mucosa
b. PNS; Villi and Microvilli

2. a. Loose and dense irregular CT; Lg muscular arteries and veins of GI tract.
b. Meissner's Plexus: Parasympathetic Ganglion that innervates Brunner's Glands (releases stuff that neutralizes HCl)
c. Causes paralysis of muscularis mucosa and lack of secretions from Brunner's and other submucosal glands

3. a. Inner circular; Outer Longitudinal Muscular Layers; Moves food via Peristalsis
b. b/w the 2 muscle layers; PSNS and SNS; Control peristalsis
c. Hirschsprung's Dz

4. Outer layer of loose CT; Wraps lumen of GI tract, fusing w/surrounding CT.


Digestive System (3): Oral Cavity

1. Mouth and Pharynx
a. Lined with what?
b. Purpose of salivary glands?

2. Esophagus
a. Purpose?
b. Made up of what?
c. Meissner's Plexus: made up of what?
d. Cardiac Sphincter: Purpose?

3. Stomach
a. 4 regions: what are they?
b. Goblet Cells:
c. Parietal Cells:
d. Chief/Peptic Cells
e. Enterochromaffin Cells
f. G cells:
g. D Cells

1. a. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
b. break food into a bolus.

2. a. move bolus to stomach
b. Upper 1/3: Skeletal muscle; mid 1/3: skeletal and SM; lower 1/3: SM only.
c. Very thick, stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium w/submucosal mucus glands
d. where esophagus inserts into the stomach.

3. a. Cardiac, fundus, body, pyloric
b. secrete mucous
c. HCL and INTRINSIC FACTOR (needed to absorb Vit B12...damage can cause PERNICIOUS ANEMIA!)
d. Pepsinogen (turned into Pepsin w/HCL present)
e. Histamine and Serotonin
f. Gastrin (stimulates Parietal cells and chief cells)
g. Somatostatin
h. gastric ulcers. decreases prostaglandin production (help protect mucosal lining)


Digestive System (4): Small Intestine

1. 2 Key functions of the Small Intestine
2. Three regions of the SI?
3. What causes the sphincter of the pancreas to open (sphincter of Oddi)?

4. The Duodenum and Jejunum: Major absorption sites for what things?

5. The Ileum is the main site that absorbs what 4 things?

6. Main site of protein digestion?

7. What part of the Digestive system has NO ROLE in carbohydrate digestion?

8. Lipid digestion begins where?

1. Absorption and Digestion

2. Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum

3. CCK (when present in stomach and SI)

4. Carbs, Lipids, AAs, Calcium and Iron

5. Bile salts, Vit B12, Water, Electrolytes

6. Duodenum and Jejunum

7. Stomach

8. Duodenum (lipase from pancreas)


Digestive System (5): Large Intestine

1. Purpose (2)

2. Has no VILLI, but lots of what Cells?

3. Three regions of LI?

4. What areas have TENIA COLI (3 separate sheets)?
a. Which area does not?

5. Course of LI?

1. WATER ABSORPTION, Lubricates Feces

2. Goblet Cells

3. Cecum (Appendix), Colon, Rectum

4. Cecum and Colon
a. Rectum

5. Lower Rt Quadrant (Ileocecal Junction) --> Ascending Colon --> Transverse Colon --> Descending Colon --> Sigmoid Colon --> Rectum


Digestive System (6): Liver

1. Falciform Ligament: Purpose
2. Coronary Ligament: Purpose
3. Hepatocytes: Type of cells with what inside?
4. Blood Flow
a. Hepatic Artery
b. Portal Vein
c. Central Vein
d. Each liver lobule has what?

5. What macrophage type cells are found in the liver only, and surround lumen?

1. connects R and L lobes --> attaches to Ant Wall of abdomen
2. Attaches liver to diaphragm (inferiorly)
3. Eosinophilic Binuclear Cells w/rER and sER, Golgi, etc.
4. a. From descending Aorta --> goes into liver and branches
b. Blood from GI to LIVER (low in O2, but LOTS OF NUTRIENTS)
c. blood that comes to the liver goes into the sinusoid capillaries (fenestrated) that leak into the tissue and finally drains out via this vein
d. Portal TRIAD: part of Hepatic Artery, Portal vein and bile duct

5. Kupffer Cells.


Digestive System (7): Function of the Liver

1. Removes and stores what vitamins?

2. What does it do to fat?

3. What does it do to Blood?

4. What does it do with glucose?

5. What does it produce?
a. Purpose

6. What Proteins does it make?

1. KADE and B12

2. Metabolizes it

3. detoxifies it (removes nitrogen) and makes urea

4. Regulates blood glucose levels

5. Bile...stored in gall bladder (takes bilirubin from a dead RBC and combines it w/bile salts, cholesterol and lecithin to make bile)
a. Emulsify fat so lipase in SI can digest it more easily. Bile pigment has NO function. Gives color.

6. ALBUMIN, fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha globulin (for blood clotting) and beta globulins (role in complement system)

*Low albumin in blood = MALNUTRITION