Flashcards in NEAR DEATH EXPERIENCE Deck (26):

What did Moody outline as the most profound feature of Near Death experience?

"BEING OF LIGHT"- Moody's research showed that the identification of this being is mostly dependant on the religious background of the individual.

Those without faith talked of it being a guide- to most this being had no physical body it was only light but to the individual it was a personal being.

In many of the experiences the Being of Light communicated with them in an unknown language they were able to understand.


How were Moody's subjects' experiences based on their background?

Those of Christian faith associated the light being with Christ.

Jewish individuals described it as an angel.


Why did Moody think these Near Death experiences provided evidence for afterlife?

The certainty and the uniformity of the experience is evidence that there is an afterlife...

"I have absolutely no fear of death. From my near death research and my personal experiences, death is, in my judgement, simply a transition into another kind of reality".


What were the 5 insights Atwater provided into Near Death experience phenomena?

1. What it feels like to die- lack of pain and recognition that physical death does not end life.

2. Shift in your field of reality- death moves you to a different understanding.

3. Existence is more than time or space- time and space are elements of the physical world and do not exist beyond- people experience existence as eternal and never-ending.

4. God is real but not a physical being - the terms we use are just ways to describe the relationship between humans and God.

5. We can understand the "big picture" that God is not judgement but love.


What are Atwater's types of NDE?

1. Initial or non-experience- people experience nothingness- not threatening but loving or friendly. May be coupled with an out of body experience or the engagement of a friendly voice.

2. Unpleasant or hell-like- visiting a "hell zone" with possible "hauntings" from the persons passed or a threatening void. These are less common.

3. Pleasant or heaven-like- reunions with loved ones who have died or the meeting of significant religious figures such as Jesus. Include reassuring conversations.

4. Transcendent experience- take the observer beyond their usual frame of mind. Include significant revelation of truth and are mostly non - personal.


Who experiences (usually) each of Atwater's experiences?

1. I/N= those who require the least amount of shakeup.

2. U/H= those who feel guilty or with repressed issues .

3. P/H= for those who need to know they are loved or have a strong belief in fate.

4. T= those who are ready for a challenge and who will use the knowledge gained wisely.


What often happens after undergoing a near death experience?

A change in their attitude- the experience gives perspective on life that can help shape it towards future.


What did Dr Kenneth Ring find after interviewing 102 people covering a different variety of ages, backgrounds and afflictions?

Very similar characteristics as reported by Moody and Atwater- e.g. light out of body experiences, joy, loved ones etc.

They are not hallucinations because they are very lucid and create concrete memories.

Religious faith has no influence on the depth or intensity of the experience, as atheists and theists reported similar experiences.


What was the Greyson scale created to do?

To measure the depth of an individuals Near Death Experience and separate them from psychological disorders.


Outline the features of the Greyson scale.

Evaluates the intensity of 16 common features of NDEs, including :
1. Experiencing altered time.
2. Review of life.
3. Feeling of peace and joy.
4. Cosmic oneness.
5. Visions.
6. Experience of light.
7. Out of body experience.
8. Communion with the dead or religious figures.
9. A point of no return.


How did Greyson decide that accounts of NDE were reliable?

Used his scale with the same group of people 20 years later to evaluate the reliability of their evidence. Believing false accounts would become embellished over time- interestingly his results showed that the average score of people on his scale remained consistent.


What did Amber Wells research find?

70% believed in reincarnation after this experience, compared to 23% in the general population.


What objections are made to NDEs by Susan Blackmore?

Susan Blackmore- "sameness" experienced by people is not spiritual but a feature of the dying brain. All human brains are similar when they die and will present similar responses, especially when put under the same stress.


What objections are made to NDEs due to Hallucinations?

Current research into hallucinogenic drugs shows that instead of heightening awareness they reduce blood flow to areas of the brain- causing hypoxia. Blurring perception and causing hallucinations.

When the brain dies this effect is replicated, as oxygen and blood levels fall in crucial perception zones the brain begins to hallucinate.


What does Ronald Siegel claim about drug induced hallucinations?

He has been able to create drug induced hallucinations that resemble NDEs in some of his volunteers- nothing more than vivid hallucinations.


What do Dean Mobbs and Caroline Watt believe the explanations for NDE are?

In 50% of cases they studied the person was not actually in danger of dying- in some cases, the fear of death is what produced an NDE.

The cultural awareness of an NDE may produce a self-fulfilling prophecy to explain the unusual sensations a person has experienced.


How does hyperawareness suggest an alternative explanation for NDE?

Dr Jimi Borjigin suggests that as the brain dies it does not shut down, rather it is more active than when awake. This defence mechanism and resultant hyper awareness caused by a surge of electrical activity could result in vivid experiences associated with NDE.


Arguments for NDEs being seen as valid...

Correlation of experience- most reporting very similar experiences of peace, love and also visits from religious or spiritual figures.

This consistency, reports of new knowledge and life-transforming impact of NDE for some are the only evidence needed to prove the existence of NDE and afterlife


Why mightn't NDEs been seen as valid?

Many scientists see this as just a symptom in the process of death and the more we learn about what the brain goes through as it dies, the more we will be able to explain the phenomena.


Explain Colton Burpo's NDE

- Burst appendix, almost died.
- Saw heaven, Jesus and Angels who pulled him up to heaven- supports "light figures".
- Jesus' markers on the palms- historically inaccurate, mouldered the experience from his background, father is Pasteur.
- Saw his Great Grandad who he'd never met and recalled his appearance perfectly- evidence for bodily resurrection.
- Unreliable as it is a young boy's account.


Explain Vicki Umipeg's NDE

- Blind since birth, injured in a car crash and was clinically dead for 4 minutes.
- Saw for the 1st time ever; supports St Augustine's beliefs in resurrection "raised without blemish or imperfection".
- Out of body experience- was on the ceiling above the hospital bed- provides evidence for some kind of disembodied physical existence.


What were the issues with Vicki Umipeg's NDE regarding the reliability or other explanations?

- Adrenaline= heightened senses.


Explain Pam Reynold's NDE

- Blood drained from her body, no heart beat or brain waves.
- Recalled her operation accurately- yet had plugged ears.
- Believed her mind lived on.
- Out of body.
- Saw a "brilliant white light" and her grandmother who "communicated with her- fits NDE characteristics and some form of non-physical existence.
- "Standing in the breath of God"- light beings- Moody.
- Had a reluctance to return.


What were the 3 most common features for Greyson, Moody, Atwater, Ring and Wells?

1. Flashback/life review.
2. Bright light.
3. Seeing deceased people.


What were the objections Moody encountered regarding NDEs?

1. Supernatural- someone would suggest that NDE's were the work of Satan.

2. Pharmalogical- drugs administered to patents prior to these experiences can cause delusions and hallucinations.

3. Physiological- oxygen cut off from the brain during clinical death and other kinds of bodily stress= hypoxia, hallucinations - fainting where the outsides of the eyes go before the centre- a tunnel-like effect.

4. Neurological- diseases to the neurological system can create phenomena similar to NDEs - e.g. life reviews or an out of body experience.

5. Psychological- Isolation can cause a distorted sense of time and dissociated with the body, reluctance to return or being at on with the universe- people are isolated in a hospital room before surgery.

Many of those who have been shipwrecked came back with a profound change in values.



How did Moody respond to objections?

1. Super: People came out of these experiences eager to do good deeds and show love - seems unlikely the matter was anything to do with a Satanic force.

2. Pharma: More vague, less lucid and have no long term impact on belief or on lifestyle- drugs may lead us to have certain religious and spiritual experiences which are genuine.

3. Physio: In some cases there was no bodily injury occurred and many occurred before the body was put under stress.

4. Neuro: Little spiritual or personal significance, not remembered clearly and no clear sense of the right path to take with life or what to do with knowledge gained.

5. Psycho: Can't be dreams or hallucinations as his subjects struck Moody as emotionally stable, normal people who are able to distinguish dreams from a waking experience.