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Flashcards in Neck and Face Deck (46)
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What are the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck?

- anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid
- inferior border of the mandible
- midline of the neck


What are the borders of the posterior triangle of the neck?

- Anterior border of the trapezius
- Superior surface of the middle third of the clavicle
- Posterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle


What do the posterior and anterior triangles mainly contain?

anterior - muscles
posterior - vessels and nerves


What are the key muscles of the anterior triangle?

- Platysma
- Mylohyoid
- Anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric
- Strap (infrahyoid) muscles – omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid and thyrohyoid


What innervates the platysma?

facial nerve


What innervates the mylohyoid?

Mandibular div. of trigeminal nerve


What innervates the anterior belly of the digastric?

Mandibular div. of trigeminal nerve


What innervates the posterior belly of the digastric?

Facial nerve


What innervates omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid?

Ansa cervicalis supply


What innervates the thyrohyoid?

C1 fibres via the hypoglossal nerve


What are the key vessels and nerves running through the neck?

- External and internal jugular veins
- Subclavian artery (posterior to scalenus anterior)
- Subclavian vein (anterior to scalenus anterior)
- Phrenic nerve (anterior surface of scalenus anterior)
- Spinal accessory nerve
- Trunks of brachial plexus (emerge posterior to scalenus anterior)


Which spinal nerves contribute to the superior, medial and inferior trunks of the brachial plexus?

C5, C6, C7, C8, T1


Which spinal nerves contribute to the phrenic nerve?

C3, C4 and C5


Which muscle protects the carotid sheath when the head is turned?



How many pairs of arteries and veins supply the thyroid gland?
Where do they originate and drain?

2 arteries (superior and inferior) and 3 veins (superior, middle, inferior)

Arteries originate from external carotid and thyrocervical trunk. Veins drain into the internal jugular (superior and middle) and the brachiocephalic trunk (inferior)


What are the clinical applications of the carotid pulse?

check pulse to head


What are the main sites for central venous lines?

Internal jugular, subclavian vein and femoral vein


What are the uses of central venous lines?

Assess heart function, large infusions of fluids, inability to get peripheral access and dialysis


What are the complications in insertions of central venous lines?

Arrhythmias, arterial puncture, Haemothorax, pneumothorax, chylothorax, thrombosis and embolism


What sort of information about the health of a patient can be obtained by palpation of the lymph nodes?

Assess infection in a specific area of the body


Where does the accessory nerve exit, what does it innervate and how would you test function?

Foramen magnum, sternocleidomastoid and trapezius, head rotation and shoulder shrug


How is a central venous line inserted?

Insert the needle at a 45-degree angle between the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscles aimed towards the ipsilateral nipple.


What are the functions of the neck?

Structural – support and move head (inside prevertebral fascia)

Visceral functions (inside or associated with pretracheal fascia)

Conduit for blood vessels & nerves (inside or associated with carotid sheaths)


What are the 4 major compartments of the neck?

A collection of muscles, which help to hold the head upright and allow it to move.

There is a visceral component (contains thyroid and parathyroid glands, trachea and oesophagus) surrounded by the pretracheal fascia.

There are two vascular compartments (contains internal jugular vein, carotid artery and vagus nerve).


What is a hyoid bone?

A free-moving bone in the neck. There are muscles attached to the hyoid bone (strap muscles).


What are the roles of strap muscles?

Concerned with elevation, depression of the larynx during swallowing and opening of the mandible.


How do the different cervical vertebrae relate to the neck?

C1: open mouth
C2: superior cervical ganglion
C3: body of hyoid
C4: upper border of thyroid cartilage, bifurcation of common carotid artery
C6: cricoid cartilage, middle cervical ganglion
C7: inferior cervical ganglion


What does the SCM do?

Turns the head to look over the shoulder in the opposite direction


What divides the neck into anterior and posterior triangles?



What is the trapezius?

A large triangular muscle which forms the neck and allows shoulder elevation