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Pediatrics Review > Neonatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neonatology Deck (77):
1

Target temperature for newborns

36.5-37.5

2

Optimal method for maintaining temperature in a stable neonate

Skin to skin contact.

3

Low brith weight
Very low birthweight
Extremely low birthweight

1. <2,500g
2. <1500g
3. <1000g

4

1. Late preterm
2. Very preterm birth
3. Extremely preterm birth

1. >34 / <37
2. <32
3. <28

5

IUGR definition

Birthweight <3%

6

Better prognosis? Symmetric or asymmetric IUGR.

Asymmetric.

7

Large for gestational age

>90th percentile

8

A
P
G
A
R

Activity
Pulse
Grimace
Appearance
Respiration

9

The most important component of the APGAR score?

Respiration

10

For neonatal BLS what is the priority of the 3 things?

ABC

11

Function of the APGAR score?

Assess the need for resuscitation.

12

Cut off for resuscitation?

<8

13

6 components of the NBS?

1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
2. Congential hypothyroidism
3. Galactosemia
4. Phenylketonuria
5. G6PD deficiency
6. MSUD

14

First sign of Congential hypothyroidism?

Prolonged jaundice

15

Most common type of CAH?

21 hydroxylase deficiency.

16

What is the newborng screening RA?

RA# 9288

17

Physiologic jaundice how long?

2 weeks

18

Symptoms of CAH with 21hydroxylase deficiency?

Labs?

1. Vomiting
2. Failure to thrive
3. Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia

19

in CAH with 21 he. There is elevation of?

17 hydroxyprogesterone

20

Galactosemia.

Enzyme defect?

Absolute contraindication to?

1. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency.
2. Breastfeeding/

21

Drugs causing G6PD?

1. Sulfonamides
2. Nalidixic acid
3. Nitrofurantoin
4. Chloramphenicol
5. Antimalarials
6. Vitamin k analogue
7. ASA
8. Benzene
9. Napthalene

22

PKU enzyme defect

Phenylalanine hydroxylase.

23

Most common manifestation of PKU?

Developmental delay.

24

MSUD enzyme deficiency.

What AA are built up?

Branched chain alpha ketoacid dehydrogenase complex.

Valine, leucine, isoleucine.

25

Resolution of caput succadeneum?

Resolves 48-72 hours after birth

26

Cephalhematoma presentation?

Enlarges after birth, resolution after 2-3 weeks. If patient does not deteriorate.

27

Cephalhematoma vs subgaleal hemorrhage?

1. Bleeding subgaleal: racoon eyes, nape

28

Most common type of Esophageal atresia, describe

Type c proximal blind pouch + distal TEF.

29

Bochdalek vs morgagni

Bochdalek : posterior and left
Morgagni: anterior central.

30

OEIS complex?

Omphalocoele
extrophy of bladder
Imperforate anus
Spina bifida.

31

VACTERL

Vertebral
Cardiac
Tracheoesophageal
Renal limbs

At least 3

32

Double bubble sign

Donut ring

Duodenal atresia

Intussusception

33

Surfactant in Fetal lung present at _____ weeks

20

34

Surfactant appears in amniotnic fluid between ________ weeks

28-32 weeks

35

Mature levels of surfactant present after _____ weeks?

35 weeks

36

Kernicterus is deposition of bilirubin in?

Basal ganglia, indirect bilirubin

37

PROM how many hours before risk of chorioamnionitis?

18

38

Rubelle syndrome cardiac anomaly

PDA

39

Hydrocele fluid where?

When resolve usually?

Tunica vaginalis

12months.

40

Scrotal hernia is usually what type?

Indirect.

41

Undescended testis will descend by?

3 months.

42

In testis are undescended by ______, it will remain undescended.

4 months.

43

Whey to casiein ratio of breastmilk?

3:2

44

Complementary feeding

At 6 months

At 8 months

At 10

At 12

6 mash

8 finger

10 chop

12 table

45

Composition of fore milk?

Lactose and protein.

46

Composition of hind milk

High fat.

47

Colostrum when?

0-7 days of life.

48

Mature milk when?

10-14 day of life.

49

Formula has more _____ (x3) than breastmilk?

KID

vit K, iron, vit D but are still bioavailable.

50

Gold standard of the diagnosis of GERD

Esophageal pH probe.

51

Contraindications to breastfeeding.

1. Absolute

Galactosemia.

52

Can breastfeed when?

1. PTB
2. Breast cancer
3. HIV

1. 2 weeks after
2. If on chemo no
3. If needed.

53

Rachitic rosary

Harissons groove.

Windswept deformity.

Seen in what disease what deficiency.

1. Wdening of costochondral junction
2. Depression lower ant chest sec to pulling of ribs by diaphragm
3. Valgus of one leg varus of the other
4. Rickets vit d

54

Vit E def manifestation

RBC hemolysis

55

Casal necklace is a manifestation of which deficiency?

B3 niacin.

56

Scorbutic rosary seen in what deficiency?

Vit C deficiency, scurvy

Sharper angulation than rachitic rosary

57

Treatment of scurvy.

3-4 oz of orange or tomato juice

VitC 200-300 mg

58

B1

Thiamine

59

B2

Riboflavin

60

B3

Niacin

61

B5

Panthotenic acid

62

B6

Pyridoxine

63

B7

Biotin

64

B9

Folic acid

65

B12

Cobalamin

66

Pseudotumor cerebri seen in what vitamin disorder

Hypervitaminosis A

67

Malnourished children seriously compromised function is?

Antibody production. (They are made of protein)

68

Weight or height is more affected in chronic problems?

Height

69

Acute malnutrition, which WHO chart used?

Weight for height

70

WHO growth chart with limited clinical use?

Weight for age.

71

MUAC

Wasting

Severe wasting

1. 11.5-12.5
2. <11.5

72

Wasting is determined by?

1. Weight for heigh

73

Refeeding syndome pathophysiology.

Excessive carbs --> insulin surge --> hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnisemia

Hallmark is hypophosphatemia

74

Chorioretinis + periventricular calcifications ?

Chorioretinis + intracerebral calcifications?

1. CMV
2. Toxoplasmosis

75

Chronic diarrhea + stomatitis + glossitis + irritability + superinfection

Zinc deficiency

76

Alopecia thrombocytopenia failure to thrive

Essential FA deficiency

77

Alopecia with neurological symptoms

Biotin deficiency.