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Flashcards in Neoplasia 1 Deck (55):
1

neoplasia definition

uncontrolled proliferation of ells

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neoplasia is synonymous for what term, and NOT what disease

tumor, NOT cancer

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two categories of neoplasia

Begning, malignant

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basic components of neoplasia

transformed parenchymal cells and supporting stroma cells

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Benign tumor

"Oma", localized, easy to surgically remove

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malignant tumor

unrestrained cell growth, tissue invasion, and metastasis, "sarcoma or carcinoma:

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mixed tumors

one germ cell layer, multiple parenchymal types. ex) mixed salivary gland tumor

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teratoma

mixed germ cell origin, variety of parenchymal. often testis/ovary. not malignant

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choristoma

non neoplastic, ectopic, heteroptopic, non transformed but otherwise tissue in the wrong place

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hamartoma

non neoplastic, disorganized tissue but correct cells for location ex) lung nodule of cartilage, bronchi, blood vessels

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three criteria for malignant tumors

local invasion, metastasis, differentiation/anaplasia (also malignant change)

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differentiation

if tumor cells resemble normal parenchymal cells in morphology and function- yes in benign, not in malignant. less differentiation= more anaplasia

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anaplasia

lack of differentiation= malignant. 1:1 nuc/cyto ration, hyperchoromasia, pleomorphisms

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can't tell what the tissue type is?

Anaplasia

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carcinoma in situ

no maturation, basal lamina intact

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dysplasia

disordered, non neoplastic growth. Usually in epithelia. loss in uniformity/organization. increased mitosis in abnormal locations. Pleomorphism/hyperchromasia OK

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rate of growth

benign tumors grow slowly, can have mass effect. cancers grow faster. excess population vs loss.

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growth fraction vs doubling time

higher growth fraction, lower doubling time. important for treatment

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how long have I had cancer?

30 divisions for detection, 10 more for malignancy

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detectible tumors started from what, and contain what?

one cell, heterogenous cells> DARWIN

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local invasion

surround tissue invasion is a characteristic of malignant tumors. no well defined capsules, MARGINS

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example of benign vs invasive tumors of the breast

fibroadenoma vs ductal carcinoma

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how can metastatic tumors spread?

local invasion, seeding, hematogenous spread, lymphatic spread

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seeing

cell shedding> land on cavity surfaces and grow ex) ovarian

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hematogenous spread

typical of sarcoma, liver and lung most frequent locations of secondary

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lymphatic spread

carcinomas, sentinel lymph node most common

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cancer stem cells

initiate and sustain tumor, small percentage of cells, MUST BE ELIMINATED FOR CURE

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cancer incidence

new cases

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cancer prevalence

new and pre existing cases- burden of disease on population

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geographic/enviromental variables

toxins, food, work, behavior

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cancer and age

most more common after 55 or under 15

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genetic predispositions

autosomal dominant inherited, defective DNA repair syndrome, familial cancers of uncertain inheritance

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acquired predisposing conditions

chronic inflammation, precursor lesions (metaplasia), immunodeficiency.

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six hallmarks of cancer

self sufficient in growth, tissue invasion, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, no apoptosis, not sensitive

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4 classes of proto Onco genes

growth promoting, tumor suppressors, apoptosis regulation, DNA repair

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targets of genetic damage

proto oncogenes, tumor suppressors, apoptosis regulation, DNA repair

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neoplastic progression

adenoma > carcinoma

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oncogenes

mutated proto oncogenes, one mutation all that is needed

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mechanisms of oncogenes

autocrine loop of proliferation, change in growth factor receptors, signal molecule mutations, unregulated transcription factors, cyclin mutations

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RAS

photo oncogene, only one mutation needed because gain of function - G1-s checkpoint

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two hit

most tumor suppressors need two hits- RB1

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DNA repair genes

p53- monitor cell stress, causes G1 arrest and triggers repair

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p53 mechanisms

quiescence, senescence, apoptosis

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Li Fraumeni

loss of p53, genetic, see multiple cancers at the same time

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telomerase

low in normal cells, limited replication. up regulates in tumors

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angiogenesis

vascularization is essential for tumor growth. Hypoxia triggers H1F1a, vessels formed are LEAKY, easy for metastasis

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metastatic cascade

loosen cell-cell contact, degrade ECM, matrix metalloprontienases, tumor cell migration

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neoplastic transformation

conversion of normal cells to neoplastic cells via alteration of genome

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nevus

tumor of melanocyte (benign)

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malignant melanoma

malignant tumor of melanocyte

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invasive meningioma

malignant endothelial

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leukemia/lymphoma

malignant tumor of blood cells ( NO benign)

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mass effect caused by

benign tumors

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sustained angiogenesis in cancer

triggered by hypoxia, angiogenic factor HiF1a overrides anti (Hippel Lindau),

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pleomorphism

non uniform morphology- anaplasia