What percentage of deaths in Australia are due to cancer?
Abnormal mass of tissue due to excessive and unregulated cell proliferation
What is the most common cancer in Australian men?
What is the most common cancer in Australian women?
What is the most common cancer in the world?
Completely undifferentiated cells
When atypical cells go beyond the basement membrane, what are they called?
Abnormal protuberance into a lumen
How is a cancer graded?
Based on the degree of differentiation of the cells
What is desmoplasia?
Tumour cells elease cytokines eg TGF beta → cause fibroblasts to differentiate and synthesise more stroma
What are the 3 routes by which cancer may spread?
Lymphatic Haematogenous Transcoelomic
What are the main organs where metastases appear?
Liver, brain, bone and lung
Name 7 features that neoplastic cells may display
Architectural disorganisation Larger nuclei Pleomorphic nuclei Coarser nuclear chromatin Hyperchromatic nuclei Larger more prominent nucleoli Abnormal mitotic figures
varying shapes and sizes
What is the prefix for glandular neoplasia?
What is the prefix for smooth muscle neoplasia?
What is the prefix for osteobastic neoplasia?
The prefix adeno- indicates neoplasia of what cell lineage?
The prefix leioymo- indicates neoplasia of what cell lineage?
The prefix osteo- indicates neoplasia of what cell lineage?
In general, the suffix -oma indicates what about neoplasia?
In general, the suffix -carcinoma indicates what about neoplasia?
In general, the suffix -sarcoma indicates what about neoplasia?
What suffix is given for benign neoplasia
What suffix is given for malignant epithelial neoplasia?
What suffix is given for malignant mesenchymal neoplasia?
What are the 4 classes of genes that are the principal focus of mutations in carcinogenesis?
1 Protooncogenes 2 Tumour supressor genes 3 Apoptotic regulatory genes 4 DNA repair genes
What is a genetic mutation?
A mutation is any change in DNA that is rare in the normal population
What is a polymorphism?
A naturally occurring variation of a gene that is relatively common in the population
Once a colon or lung tumour is clinically detectable, how long will it take to double in size?
What is loss of heterozygosity?
The loss of normal function of one allele of a gene in which the other allele was already affected
What is the most common fatal cancer in Australian men?
What is the most common fatal cancer in Australian women?
What is the most common form of lung cancer?
What are they 4 main forms of lung cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma
What does cancer 'stage' refer to?
Size Invasiveness Nodal spread Spread (Metastases)
What does the TNM system measure?
Staging of cancer T = extent of primary tumour N = regional lymph node metastases M = metastases
What does stage IV lung cancer imply?
What term is interchangeable with 'intraepithelial neoplasia"
Carcinoma in situ
How many mutations of a tumour supressor gene are required for cancer?
How is a neoplasia descibed once it breaches the basement membrane?
An invasive neoplasia has by definition breached what?
Sarcoma indicates what?
Malignancy of connective tissue/stroma/mesenchyme
'Carcinoma' indicates what?
Cancer of epithelium