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Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (45):
1

What percentage of deaths in Australia are due to cancer?

30%

2

Define neoplasia

Abnormal mass of tissue due to excessive and unregulated cell proliferation

3

What is the most common cancer in Australian men?

Prostate cancer

4

What is the most common cancer in Australian women?

Breast cancer

5

What is the most common cancer in the world?

Lung cancer

6

Define cancer

Malignant neoplasia

7

Define anaplastic

Completely undifferentiated cells

8

When atypical cells go beyond the basement membrane, what are they called?

Invasive

9

Define polyp

Abnormal protuberance into a lumen

10

How is a cancer graded?

Based on the degree of differentiation of the cells

11

What is desmoplasia?

Tumour cells elease cytokines eg TGF beta → cause fibroblasts to differentiate and synthesise more stroma

12

What are the 3 routes by which cancer may spread?

Lymphatic Haematogenous Transcoelomic

13

What are the main organs where metastases appear?

Liver, brain, bone and lung

14

Name 7 features that neoplastic cells may display

Architectural disorganisation Larger nuclei Pleomorphic nuclei Coarser nuclear chromatin Hyperchromatic nuclei Larger more prominent nucleoli Abnormal mitotic figures

15

Define pleomorphic

varying shapes and sizes

16

What is the prefix for glandular neoplasia?

Adeno-

17

What is the prefix for smooth muscle neoplasia?

Leiomyo-

18

What is the prefix for osteobastic neoplasia?

Osteo-

19

The prefix adeno- indicates neoplasia of what cell lineage?

Glandular

20

The prefix leioymo- indicates neoplasia of what cell lineage?

Smooth muscle

21

The prefix osteo- indicates neoplasia of what cell lineage?

Osteobastic

22

In general, the suffix -oma indicates what about neoplasia?

Benign

23

In general, the suffix -carcinoma indicates what about neoplasia?

Malignant epithelial

24

In general, the suffix -sarcoma indicates what about neoplasia?

Malignant mesenchymal

25

What suffix is given for benign neoplasia

-oma

26

What suffix is given for malignant epithelial neoplasia?

-carcinoma

27

What suffix is given for malignant mesenchymal neoplasia?

-sarcoma

28

What are the 4 classes of genes that are the principal focus of mutations in carcinogenesis?

1 Protooncogenes 2 Tumour supressor genes 3 Apoptotic regulatory genes 4 DNA repair genes

29

What is a genetic mutation?

A mutation is any change in DNA that is rare in the normal population

30

What is a polymorphism?

A naturally occurring variation of a gene that is relatively common in the population

31

Once a colon or lung tumour is clinically detectable, how long will it take to double in size?

2-3 months

32

What is loss of heterozygosity?

The loss of normal function of one allele of a gene in which the other allele was already affected

33

What is the most common fatal cancer in Australian men?

Lung

34

What is the most common fatal cancer in Australian women?

Lung

35

What is the most common form of lung cancer?

Adenocarcinoma

36

What are they 4 main forms of lung cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma

37

What does cancer 'stage' refer to?

Size Invasiveness Nodal spread Spread (Metastases)

38

What does the TNM system measure?

Staging of cancer T = extent of primary tumour N = regional lymph node metastases M = metastases

39

What does stage IV lung cancer imply?

Metastasis/es

40

What term is interchangeable with 'intraepithelial neoplasia"

Carcinoma in situ

41

How many mutations of a tumour supressor gene are required for cancer?

2

42

How is a neoplasia descibed once it breaches the basement membrane?

Invasive

43

An invasive neoplasia has by definition breached what?

Basement membrane

44

Sarcoma indicates what?

Malignancy of connective tissue/stroma/mesenchyme

45

'Carcinoma' indicates what?

Cancer of epithelium