Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (63)
new abnormal growth
study of tumors
What suffix do benign tumors use?
cell of origin -- oma
benign tumor that is fibrous or developed CT
benign growth of hyaline cartilage.
epithelial cell benign tumor; epithelial cells form a glandular structure or are derived from glandular tissue
benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels
benign tumor of lymphoid tissue
benign epithelial tumor of the skin or mucous membrane possessing finger-like projections
benign protrusion from a mucous membrane
What does 'sarcoma' indicate?
malignant tumors that arise from derivatives of mesenchymal tissue (fibrosarcoma and chondrosarcoma)
What does 'carcinoma' indicate?
malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma)
Are mesotheliomas and melanomas malignant or benign?
- they do not follow the naming rules
How are mixed tumors formed? example?
- occurs due to divergent differentiation (clonal cell tumor went in two different pathways)
EX: mixed (pleomorphic) tumor of the parotid gland. epithelial cells form ducts. connective tissue stoma resembling cartilage.
What is the name for a tumor derived from more than one germ layer?
- more than one tissue type may be found in the tumor (teeth, nerve, muscle, epithelium, etc.)
Define differentiation in terms of tumor cells.
An assessment to which tumor cells resemble comparable normal cells, both structurally and functionally.
State where tumor cells lack differentiation.
Cells and nuclei are variable in size and shape.
What would be an example of abnormal nuclear structure?
- Nuclei contain an abundance of DNA and are hyperchromatic
- nuclei are also larger than normal with large nucleoli
What type of mitoses are found in a malignant neoplasm?
- large numbers of mitoses
- mitotic spindles are unusual and may be tri- quad- or multi-polar
Almost all ______ tumors grow slowly and are confined to their site of origin.
Which tumor, benign or malignant, usually develops a capsule?
- malignant tumors usually lack a capsule though slow growing malignant tumors may develop one
What are four ways tumor cells can metastasize or spread?
1. Direct seeding of cavities or surfaces
2. Lymphatic spread
4. Perineural invasion and spread
Has "carcinoma in situ" metastasized?
No, still confined to the epithelium
Which cancers are most likely to spread via the peritoneal cavity?
colon cancer and ovarian cancer
What body cavities are used for direct seeding?
- peritoneal cavity
- pleural cavity
- pericardial cavity
- subarachnoid space
- joint cavity
What type of metastasis is common in breast cancers?
Which organs are most commonly affected by hematogenous metastasis?
liver and lungs