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Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (63)
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1

Define neoplasia.

new abnormal growth

2

Define cancer.

malignant neoplasms

3

Define oncology.

study of tumors

4

What suffix do benign tumors use?

cell of origin -- oma

5

Define fibroma.

benign tumor that is fibrous or developed CT

6

Define chondroma.

benign growth of hyaline cartilage.

7

Define adenoma.

epithelial cell benign tumor; epithelial cells form a glandular structure or are derived from glandular tissue

8

Define hemangioma.

benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels

9

Define lymphoma.

benign tumor of lymphoid tissue

10

Define papilloma.

benign epithelial tumor of the skin or mucous membrane possessing finger-like projections

11

Define polyp.

benign protrusion from a mucous membrane

12

What does 'sarcoma' indicate?

malignant tumors that arise from derivatives of mesenchymal tissue (fibrosarcoma and chondrosarcoma)

13

What does 'carcinoma' indicate?

malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma)

14

Are mesotheliomas and melanomas malignant or benign?

Malignant
- they do not follow the naming rules

15

How are mixed tumors formed? example?

- occurs due to divergent differentiation (clonal cell tumor went in two different pathways)
EX: mixed (pleomorphic) tumor of the parotid gland. epithelial cells form ducts. connective tissue stoma resembling cartilage.

16

What is the name for a tumor derived from more than one germ layer?

teratoma

- more than one tissue type may be found in the tumor (teeth, nerve, muscle, epithelium, etc.)

17

Define differentiation in terms of tumor cells.

An assessment to which tumor cells resemble comparable normal cells, both structurally and functionally.

18

Define anaplasia.

State where tumor cells lack differentiation.

19

Define pleomorphism.

Cells and nuclei are variable in size and shape.

20

What would be an example of abnormal nuclear structure?

- Nuclei contain an abundance of DNA and are hyperchromatic
- nuclei are also larger than normal with large nucleoli

21

What type of mitoses are found in a malignant neoplasm?

- large numbers of mitoses
- mitotic spindles are unusual and may be tri- quad- or multi-polar

22

Almost all ______ tumors grow slowly and are confined to their site of origin.

benign

23

Which tumor, benign or malignant, usually develops a capsule?

benign

- malignant tumors usually lack a capsule though slow growing malignant tumors may develop one

24

What are four ways tumor cells can metastasize or spread?

1. Direct seeding of cavities or surfaces
2. Lymphatic spread
3. Hematogenous
4. Perineural invasion and spread

25

Has "carcinoma in situ" metastasized?

No, still confined to the epithelium

26

Which cancers are most likely to spread via the peritoneal cavity?

colon cancer and ovarian cancer

27

What body cavities are used for direct seeding?

- peritoneal cavity
- pleural cavity
- pericardial cavity
- subarachnoid space
- joint cavity

28

What type of metastasis is common in breast cancers?

lymphatic spread

29

Which organs are most commonly affected by hematogenous metastasis?

liver and lungs

30

Describe perineural invasion.

- cancer cells invade and spread in the CT space around a nerve
- pain generation