Neoplasia & its genetics, naming and grading tumors and CA Tx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasia & its genetics, naming and grading tumors and CA Tx Deck (62):
1

neoplasia=

abnormal cell growth and differentiation

2

whats a neoplasm

a tumor aka irreversible growth or abnormal mass

3

__ gene causes apoptosis when Dna is damaged
when would this occur?
what percentage of cancers have a defect in this gene

TP53
occurs when:
-the cell has lived to a certain age
- cell has divided a certain number of times
-cell or its organelles are damages
50% of cancers have defect in this gene

4

Dna repair genes =

they repair altered genes
like spell checkers for the sequence of nitrogenous bases

5

What are the go genes and the stop genes called?

go=proto oncogenes
stop=tumor suppressor genes

6

how do proto oncogenes affct cells

they inc cell division
by producing growth proteins and enhancing cell division

7

how does a tumor suppressor gene work?
what would happen if it mutated?

it dec cell division
-if mutated it would lead to the cell having uninhibited division and inc growth

8

naming tumors:
benign suffix =
if malignant and epithelial in origin=
if malignant and mesenchymal in origin=

benign=oma
epi=carcinoma
mesenchyme=sarcoma

9

carcinomas may arise from what tye of tissue? examples

if it is squamous columnar or cuboidal in origin

10

exmples of mesenchymal tumors

liposarcoma
osteosarcoma
chondrosarcoma
adenosarcoma

11

what types of tissue or organs are mesenchymal
what is mesenchyme?

cancellous bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, vascular, or hematopoietic tissues
mesenchyme is embryonic tissue?

12

benign tumor
does it stop
diff or undifferentiated cells
invasive or no

-uncontrolle slow growth (thsts faster than normal cells)
-may stop or regress
-differentiated cells
-non-invasive. they take up space but arent invasive compared to malignant tumor

13

malignant tumor

-disorderly, rapid growth
-poorly differentiated cells
-invasive and damaging (grow continuously)

14

cancer arises due to_____
eg

mutated genes
eg smoking alters gene that regulates growth

15

how many malignant tumors does a cancer pt have

at least one

16

mode of growth of malignant neoplasm

grows by invasion
send out processes that infiltrate surrounding tissue

17

cell characteristics of malignant neoplasm

-undifferentiated
-anaplasia
-atypical structure often very different from tissue of origin

18

mode of growth for benign neplasm

grows by expansion without invasion
-usually encapsulated

19

how does a malignant neoplasm spread

it gains access to blood and lymph to metastasize

20

benign bone tumor=
malignant ""=

osteoma
osteosarcoma

21

benign glandular epithelium tumor=
malignant

adenoma
adenocarcinoma

22

malignant nerve cell=

neuroblastoma

23

benign striated muscle=

rhabdomyoma

24

malignant smooth musce tumor=

leiomyosarcoma

25

how often do tumors double in size?

every 100 days

26

when can a tumor be clinically palpated
how many cells are present at this time

once 1cm
1000000000 cells

27

3 methods of spread of tumors (malignant probabl?

-extension and invasion (still local)
-seeding in body cavities (no longer in site of origin)
metastasis via blood or lymph (distant spread)

28

what is metastasis

spread of malignant cancer cells from primary to secondary site

29

what are the most common sites of malignant tumor growth
in order

lymphatic tissue, then liver, lungs, bones, brain

LLLBB

30

what are the routes of spread of malignant tumors

blood and lymph

31

what are the requirements to become a preferred secondary site for malignant tumor growth

1=large size
2=richly perfused

32

how many stages are there in metastasis
-brief summary of each

3
Stage I
-invades loacl tissue
stage II
-emboli enter blood or lymph vessel and attach to suitable site
Stage III
-angiogenesis and cell growth at secondary site

33

how is stage I of metastasis accomplished

the invasion of local tissues is made possible by enzymes that break up the cementing material between cells

34

whats an emboli

small group of cells travelig in circulation that is unattached

35

stage II of metastasis

-emboli enter either blood or lmph (most will be killed by defenses but likely not all of them)
-when an area of resistance eg capillary bed is met the emboli will attach to the suitable site (tested with mediators to det suitability)
(it moves into interstitial space to grow usually it looks like?)
-the emboli produces cytokines and growth factors in order to grow

36

do normal cells at a secondary site become malignant

no, theyre killed off

37

how many tumors will the primary site have vs secondary site

1'=1
2'=multiple

38

Stage III of metastasis

angiogenesis and cell growth occurs at the secondary site

39

do all tumor cells make it to secondary site

no, some are destroyed by lymphocytes

40

other than traveling exposed through blood and lymph what might happen?

antitumor host cells like platelets this forms tumor emboli

41

whats more subjective? grading or staging?

grading

42

how are tumors staged

using imaging tests
using the global tumor node metastasis (scale??what?)

43

is global TNM subjective?

no

44

TNM.
T=
egs

T0-4. T0=no tumor
t1=small
T4=lg

45

Tx=(not reatment)

tumor cant be assessed

46

Tis=

tumor in situ-in its original position

47

N0-3=

regional lymph nodes

48

N1=

indicates extent of involvemnt NOT number of nodes

49

M2=

two secondary metastasis sites

50

M0-1

M0 is probably no secondary site and M1 must be one secondary site

51

Tumor grading
what do some of the grades mean

scale of 1-IV
its subjective
I=restrictive
IV=extensive spread within primary site

52

6 types of cancer treatment

surgery
hormone therapy
immunotherapy
radiation
chemotherapy
Combination therapy
=SHIRCCt
shirk=to avoid or neglect
try to avoid the cancer

53

CA Tx: how does radiation work

necrosis via:
1-free radical production
2-disruption of DNA bonds (popular method
(its diff to direct the radiation)

54

how does cehmotherapy work as cancer treatment

it targets cell division (also damagin normal cells eg hair and skin)
it prevents and slows the growth of cells

55

considerations for surgery to excise a malignant tumor

not easy to know the bounds of the tumor. Generally remove more than nec ad the lab looks at the tissue surrounding the tumor to see if tis cancer
(this is imp because pieces could brek ff and form emboli and spread or rapidly divide and cause more cancer)

56

immunotherapy as cancer Tx

uses cytokines and Abs
-stimulates immune response to destroy cancer cells

57

hormone therapy as cancer tx

for hormone responsive tumors

58

where are hormone responsve tumors often

in reproductive system

59

in hormone treatment do they give above or below normal amounts of hormones?

below. they deprive the cancer cells of the hormonal signals that otherwise would stimulate them to divide

60

look in boo for hormones that might be examples of hormone hterapy

LSH, GH, FSH, TESTOSTERONE, ESTROGENS, PROGESTERONE??

61

if duirng cancer tx you ae using surgery then radiation this s an example of_____

combinationt herapy

62

problems associated with cancer treatment or therapy

focus
recurrence
normal cells