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Flashcards in Neoplasm 1 Deck (25):
1

What is a neoplasm

Neoplasm is an abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initial stimulus is removed.

2

What is a malignant neoplasm?

Malignant neoplasms is an abnormal growth of cells that persists after the initial stimulus is removed and invades surrounding tissue with potential to spread to distant sites.

3

What is a tumour?

Tumour is any clinically detectable lump or swelling a neoplasm is just one type of tumour.

4

What is a cancer?

Cancer is any malignant neoplasm.

5

What is metastasis?

Metastasis is a malignant neoplasm that has spread from its original site to a new non-contiguous site.

6

What is dysplasia?

Dysplasia is altered differentiation, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia indicates worsening differentiation.

7

What does anaplastic mean?

Anaplastic cells show no resemblance to any tissue.

8

What is a polyp?

Polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue

9

Describe the main differences between a benign and malignant cancer

Benign: confined, pushing outer margin, no ulceration or necrosis and is well differentiated

Malignant: can spread by metastasis, irregular outer margin and shape, may show necrosis and ulceration and can range from well to poorly differentiated

10

What happens to cells with worsening differentiation?

With worsening differentiation individual cells have increasing nuclear size and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, increased nuclear staining (hyperchromasia), more mitotic figures and increasing variation in size and shape of cells and nuclei, which is called pleomorphism.

11

What's the difference between in-situ and invasive carcinomas?

Carcinomas can be in-situ (no invasion through epithelial basement membrane) or invasive (penetrated through basement membrane).

12

Are all cells in a cancer the same?

Neoplasms are monoclonal. A collection of cells is monoclonal if they all originated from a single founding cell. Evidence that neoplasms are monoclonal came from the study of the X-linked gene for the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in tumour tissue from women.

13

What suffix is used for a benign epithelial neoplasm

oma

14

What suffix is used for a malignant epithelial neoplasm

carcinoma

15

What suffix is used for a malignant connective tissue neoplasm

sarcoma

16

What is a leukemia?

Leukaemia is a malignant neoplasm of blood-forming cells arising in the bone marrow

17

What is a lymphoma?

lymphomas are malignant neoplasms of lymphocytes, mainly affecting lymph nodes.

18

What are myelomas?

Myeloma is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells.

19

What is a blastoma?

• Blastomas are tumours arising from immature precursor cells in children

20

What is a teretoma?

• Germ cell neoplasms arise from pluripotent cells, mainly in the testis or ovaries and is called a Teratoma (dermoid cysts in females). Also a different tumour called a seminoma in males

21

What is a papilloma?

Benign epithelial tumour

22

What is an Adenoma?

Benign glandular tumour

23

What is a leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma?

Smooth muscle neoplams

24

What are gliomas?

Glial tissue neoplasms

25

What are carcinoid tumours?

Neuroendocrine tumours