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What is a neoplasm?

- An abnormal mass/new (neo-) growth of tissue
- Growth is not co-ordinated

- Persists after removal of inciting stimulus (if any is identified)

- May have secondary changes: e.g. ulceration


Define adenoma

A benign epithelial neoplasm that forms glands OR which derives from glandular tissue


Define papilloma

A benign epithelial neoplasm characterised by the formation of finger-like projections from the epithelial surface.


Define teratoma

A tumour composed of ecto, endo and/or mesoderaml tissues, usually multiple, foreign to the site of origin.


Definae hamartoma

A tumour-like malformation composed of differentiated tissues normal to the site of origin. (iris, pulmonary, renal)

NOT a neoplasm


Define blastoma

A tumour composed of embryonic cells – very primitive cells


Define choristoma

A mass of histologically normal tissue in an abnormal location

NOT a neoplasm


Define polyp

Any growth or mass protruding from a mucous surface

It may not be a neoplasm


Define tuberculoma

A tumour-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a caseous tubercle.

NOT a neoplasm


Define mycetoma

A chronic disease due to infection by various fungus or actinomycetes affecting the foot, hands, legs or internal organs.

NOT a neoplasm.


Define anaplasia

A condition of cells in which they have poor cellular differentiation, losing the morphological characteristics of mature cells and their orientation with respect to each other and to endothelial cells.


Define pleomorphism

Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape and staining of cells and/or their nuclei. It is a feature characteristic of malignant neoplasms, and dysplasia.


Define metastasis

The development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer.


What does carcinoma refer to?

Malignant epithelial


What is cancer?

Malignant neoplasm

A tumour having the properties of anaplasia, invasiveness and metastasis.


What does sarcoma refer to?

Malignant mesenchymal


Define dysplasia

The enlargement of an organ or tissue by the proliferation of cells of an abnormal type, as a developmental disorder or an early stage in the development of cancer.


What factors are used to classify neoplasms?

- Behavioural

- Histogenetic

- Descriptive

- Site of origin
- Embryological – ecto, endo or mesodermal
- Aetiological – usually not known
- Molecular – emerging. I.e. HER 2, BRAF ALK positive


What is the difference between benign and malignant?

Benign – remains localized
Malignant – not localized. Can be primary or secondary

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