whar are neurons that carry sensory information into the brain and spinal cord
sensory receptors a.k.a. afferent, neurons
What are motor fibers in regards to nervous system?
a.k.a. efferent carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to cells and organs such as muscle fibers and glandular cells
Which division of the PNS is associated with Rest and Digest?
Which devision of the PNS controls voluntary muscle movement
The brain and spinal cord make up what part of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System
Which part of the nervous system controls reflex activity
what is the vertical plane which passes from ventral (front) to dorsal (rear) dividing the body into right and left halves
Define the coronal plane
the frontal plane) is any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) sections.
what are the 5 sections of the spinal cord?
C1-7 T1-12 L1-5 S1-5 coccygeal.
What is the structure in which Nerve roots fan out like a “horses tail” at L1-L2
whare are most lumbar punctures done?
at L2-4 vertebral interspace
Which part of the peripheral nervous system is considered the "brain of the gut"?
enteric nervous system
of the 12 cranial nerve pairs, how many come from the brainstem?
mnemonic for names of cranial nerves
On Occasion Our Trusty Trucks Act Funny, Very Good Vehicles Any How I. olfactory 2. optic 3. oculomotor 4. trochlear 5. trigeminal 6. abducens 7. facial 8. vestibulocochlear 9. glossopharyngeal 10. vagus 11. accessory 12. hypoglossal
mnemonic for innervation of cranial nerves
m - motor s - sensory b - both Some say marry money but my brother says big boobs matter most.
Which cranial nerve is associated with corneal reflexes, facial sensation, jaw movements, voice and speech
trigeminal has 3 branches 1. opthalmic 2. maxillary 3. mandible
the Optic CN is associated with what?
visual acuity, visual fields
which CN is associated with pupillary reactions, extraocular movments
the trochlear CN is associated with what?
extraocular eye movements - movement of eyeball (downward movement)
What other CN is also associate with extraocular eye movement, but movement of eyeball is lateral deviation of the eye?
the CN of facial expression and taste (sour, bitter, sweet, salty) on the anterior 2/3 of tongue
What is the vestibulocochlear CN associated with?
hearing and balance
What CN is associated with taste on the posterior 1/3 of tongue, swallowing and rise of the palate, gag reflex
The vagus CN is associated with what?
voice and speech, swallowing and rise of the palate, gag reflex
Which 2 CNs , monitoring of O2 and CO2 in blood for regulation of breathing rate and depth?
glossopharyngeal n. vagus n.
Which nerve is also associated with sensation from visceral organs in thorax and abdomen, swallowing, coughing, and voice production, smooth muscle contraction and relaxation in organs of GI tract, slowing of the heart rate, secretion of digestive fluids
Which CN is associated with swallowing, shoulder and neck movements
The hypoglossal CN is associated with what?
tongue symmetry and position, voice and speech
How many pairs of peripheral nerves are there?
31 pairs 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal
Which nerves carry sensory fibers?
posterior (dorsal) roots
Which nerves carry motor fibers?
anterior (ventral) roots
what is a reflex?
an involuntary, stereotypical response that may involve as few as 2 neurons, 1 afferent (sensory) and 1 efferent (motor), across a single synapse
what is a an area of skin supplied by sensory neurons that arise from a spinal nerve ganglion.
What is perception that the room is spinning or rotating
what is ataxia?
difficulty with gait or balance
what is the feeling of pins and needles called?
what is the sudden but temporary loss of consciousness that occurs with decreased blood flow to the brain, described as fainting
What is the max glasgow coma score? min?
max 15 min 3
What is considered a "stupor"?
patient aroused with painful stimuli ; minimal awareness of self and environment
a patient that opens eyes and looks at you, but responds slowly and is somewhat confused; alertness and interest are decreased -- is considered to be what?
obtunded - aroused with gental shaking
how are motor and sensory tested for the trigeminal nerve?
motor is teeth clenching; sensory is done with sharp and dull alternating over branches of the nerve
Which nerves are tested when testing pupil is direct and consensual response to light
CN III, IV, VI (oculomotor, trochlear, facial)
Which nerve is tested by the Weber and Rene tests?
how is muscle strength graded?
Graded on a scale from 0 to 5 0 = no muscular contraction 3 = active movement against gravity 5 = active movement against resistance (normal)
What is the sensory test called that asks the patient to identification of familiar objects in the patient’s hand
what is graphesthesia?
testing sensory by “writing” on patient’s hand with something blunt and they are to identify the number or letter you have written
which deep tendon reflexs and spinal segments are tested in the arm?
biceps - C5 brachiorradialis - C6 Triceps - C7
What reflex is dorsiflexion of the big toe with fanning of the other toes
Which deep tendon reflexes are tested in the leg?
achille - S1 babinski - L4-5,S1-2\ patellar - L4
how do you score deep tendon reflexes?
4+ very brisk, hyperactive, with clonus 3+ brisker than average, possibly but not necessarily indicative of disease 2+ average, normal 1+ somewhat diminished, low normal 0 no response
what is Brudzinski's sign?
pain with flexion of hips and knees with flexion of the neck while patient is in supine position
how many bones are in the body?
how is opposition of hand tested?
moving thumb to the 5th MCP joint
what is active ROM?
patient is able to accomplish on their own
what is passive ROM?
the examiner manipulates the joint
descriptive chart for muscle grading