Nerve and blood supply to the upper limb Flashcards Preview

Module 204 Theme 2 > Nerve and blood supply to the upper limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nerve and blood supply to the upper limb Deck (87):
1

Which artery begins the blood supply to the upper limb?

Subclavian artery

2

Where does the right subclavian artery come from?

Brachiocephalic trunk

3

Where does the left subclavian artery come from?

Arch of the aorta

4

Where does the subclavian artery pass?

Passes through the scalene triangle over the first rib

5

Which muscle divides the subclavian artery?

Scalenus anterior

6

List the parts of the subclavian artery

1st - medial to scalenus anterior
2nd - behind scalenus anterior
3rd - lateral to scalenus anterior

7

Name some arteries which branch from the 1st part of the subclavian artery

Vertebral artery

Thyrocervical trunk

8

Name an artery which branches from the 2nd or 3rd part of the subclavian artery

Dorsal scapular artery

9

What does the dorsal scapular artery contribute to?

Scapular anastomosis

10

What does the thyrocervical trunk contribute to?

Scapular anastomosis

11

Where does the thyrocervical trunk go?

To thyroid, cervical and scapular

12

Where does the subclavian artery end?

As it crosses the border of the 1st rib

13

What does the subclavian artery become after it passes the border of the 1st rib?

Axillary artery

14

Which muscle divides the axillary artery into 3 parts?

Pectoralis minor

15

List the 3 parts of the axillary artery

1st - medial to pectoralis minor
2nd - Behind pectoralis minor
3rd - Lateral to pectoralis minor

16

What are the 1st and 2nd parts of the axillary artery closely associated with?

Brachial plexus

17

Where does the axillary artery end?

Lower border of teres minor

18

What does the axillary artery become?

Brachial artery

19

Which artery is a branch of the 3rd part of the axillary artery?

Subscapular artery

20

What does the subscapular artery form?

Scapular anastomosis

21

What is the risk of a surgical fracture to the humerus?

Trauma to the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral to neck/shaft of humerus

22

Where is the brachial artery located in the arm?

Superficial

23

What does the brachial artery supply?

Flexors

24

Name the large branch of the brachial artery

Profunda brachii artery

25

What does the brachial artery contribute to?

Anastomosis around the elbox

26

Where does the brachial artery divide?

Cubital fossa

27

What does the brachial artery split into?

Radial artery (lateral)

Ulnar artery (medial)

28

What does profunda brachii artery supply?

Extensors

29

Where is the profunda brachii artery located?

Spiral Groove

30

What does the profunda brachii accompany?

Radial nerve

31

What can fracture to the humerus cause?

Trauma to profunda brachii artery

32

Describe the size of the radial artery in comparison to ulnar

Smaller

33

Which muscle covers the radial artery?

Brachioradialis

34

What does the radial artery form?

Deep palmar arch

35

What happens to the radial artery at the wrist?

Winds around to dorsum of hand

Through anatomical snuffbox

Pierces first dorsal interosseous muscle

36

Where is the deep palmar arch located?

Below flexor tendons

37

Which muscle covers the ulnar artery?

Flexor carpi ulnaris

38

Name the deep branch of the ulnar artery

Common interosseous artery

39

What does the ulnar artery form?

Superficial palmar arch

40

Where is the superficial palmar arch located?

Above flexor tendons

41

Name the arteries surrounding each finger

Palmar digital arteries

42

Where does venous blood drain?

Axillary vein and subclavian vein

43

Describe the venous return in upper limb

Variable

44

Describe deep veins

Paired veins

Venae comitantes

45

Name the superficial veins

Cephalic (lateral forearm)
Basilic (medial forearm)

46

Where are the superficial veins from?

Dorsal venous arch

47

Where do the cephalic and basilic veins drain?

Axillary vein

48

Describe the number of lymph nodes in the upper limb

Relatively few

49

Where does lymph drain?

Axillary nodes

50

Name the 3 nodes in the upper limb

Deltopectoral node

Axillary nodes

Cubital nodes

51

Which vein is located by the deltopectoral node?

Cephalic vein

52

Which vein is located by the cubital node?

Basilic vein

53

What is the brachial plexus?

Nerve supply to upper limb

54

What does the brachial plexus carry?

Motor, sensory and sympathetic axons

55

What does the brachial plexus produce?

Mixed nerves (contains axons from multiple spinal nerves)

56

What is the brachial plexus divided into?

Roots

Trunks

Division

Cords

Terminal branches

57

What are roots?

Roots are ventral primary rami of C5-T1

58

What does the dorsal scapular nerve supply?

Rhomboids

Levator scapulae

59

What does the long thoracic nerve supply?

To serratus anterior

60

Describe the motor innervation of the upper limb?

Motor axons within each root innervate a different functional group of muscles (myotomes)

61

What does C5 do?

Shoulder abduction and adduction

62

What does C6/C7 do?

Elbow flexion/extension

63

What does C7/C8 do?

Wrist flexion/extension

64

What does C8/T1 do?

Movement of digits

65

What do roots form?

Trunks

66

Where do trunks pass?

Through the scalene triangle

67

What does each trunk divide into?

Anterior and posterior division

68

Describe the anterior division

Axons to flexor compartments

69

What does the anterior division form?

Lateral and medial cords

70

What does the posterior division form?

Posterior cord

71

Describe the posterior division

Axons to extensor compartments

72

Where are the cords located?

Under pectoralis minor

73

What are the cords related to?

Axillary artery

74

Name the 3 divisions of cord in relation to axillary artery

Lateral
Posterior
Medial

75

What does the lateral cord terminate as?

Musculocutaneous nerve
Lateral part of median nerve

76

What is the motor and sensory function of the musculocutaneous nerve

Motor - Anterior arm
Sensory - Lateral forearm

77

What does the medial cord terminate as?

Medial part of median nerve
Ulnar nerve

78

What is the motor and sensory function of the median nerve

Motor - anterior forearm and lateral hand
Sensory - Lateral palm of the hand, d123 and half 4

79

What is the motor and sensory function of the ulnar nerve?

Motor - medial side anterior forearm and hand
Sensory - medial hand and half d4 and d5

80

What does the posterior cord terminate as?

Radial nerve
Axillary nerve

81

What is the motor and sensory function of the radial nerve?

Motor - posterior arm and posterior forearm
Sensory - Posterior arm and posterior forearm and lateral dorsum hand

82

What is the motor and sensory function of the axillary nerve?

Motor - deltoid muscle and teres minor
Sensory - Badge area of arm

83

What is a dermatome?

An individual area of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve

84

When are dermatomes established?

During development

85

What is the clinical significance of dermatomes?

Altered sensation in the region of a dermatome indicates damage to specific spinal nerve of spinal cord segment (i.e. proximal nerve injury)

86

What do terminal branches contain?

axons from multiple spinal nerve

87

List the borders of the scalene triangle

Scalenus anterior
Scalenus medius
First rib