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Flashcards in Nerves 1 Deck (53):
1

What are the three functions of the Nervous system?

Sensory (receives stimuli)
Integrative (interprets and processes stimuli)
Effector (produces outgoing signal to initiate a response)

2

What is the CNS?

Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord

3

What is the PNS?

Peripheral Nervous System
Any neural tissue outside CNS

4

Describe the CNS

Contained within skull and vertebrae
Integrative in function (processes and understands sensory information to translate it into a response)

5

Describe the PNS

Outside of skull and vertebrae
Peripheral Nerves
Peripheral Ganglia
Sensory organs of vision, hearing, etc.

6

What are peripheral nerves?

Cranial and Spinal nerves

7

What are peripheral ganglia?

Sensory ganglia
Autonomic nervous system ganglia

8

Afferent division of Peripheral Nerves

Bring sensory information in from receptors

9

Efferent division of Peripheral nerves

Carries motor commands to effectors

10

Define Nerve cells

Electrically active cells that process and conduct information in the form of electrical signals

11

Define Neuroglia

Support cells

12

What neuroglia are in the PNS?

Satellite cells
Schwann Cells

13

What neuroglia are in the CNS?

Oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes
Microglia
Ependymal cells

14

What do oligodendrocytes do?

Myelinate axons

15

What do astrocytes do?

General support cells

16

What do microglia do?

clean up damage

17

What do schwann cells?

myelinate axons

18

What fibers transmit information in the PNS?

Nerves

19

What fibers transmit information in the CNS?

White matter, fiber tract, column

20

What nerve cell bodies process information in PNS?

Ganglia

21

What nerve cell bodies process information in CNS?

Grey matter, nucleus, cortex

22

____ gray horns contain somatic and visceral sensory nuclei

Posterior

23

____ gray horns deal with somatic motor control

Anterior

24

____ gray horns contain visceral motor neurons

Lateral

25

Size of grey matter (number of nerve cells) is related to

The size of body innervated

26

Ascending white matter tracts

relay information from spinal cord to the brain

27

Descending white matter tracts

carry information from brain to spinal cord

28

The adult spinal cord

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccyx

29

_____ root of spinal nerve is afferent

Dorsal

30

___ root of spinal nerve is efferent

Ventral

31

Define dermatomes

Region of the skin monitored by the sensory afferents of a single spinal segment

32

Define telencephalon

cerebrum

33

Define diencephalon

thalamus and hypothalamus

34

Define mesencephalon

midbrain

35

Define metenchephalon

pons and cerebellum

36

Define myelencephalon

medulla oblongata

37

Where is the highest level of processing located?

Cerebral Hemispheres

38

The basal nuclei of cerebral hemispheres

dictate motor control

39

The thalamus

Relays sensory information to appropriate processing center

40

The hypothalamus

Is involved with ANS and endocrine control

41

The cortex of cerebellum

Coordinates motor control

42

Define projection fibers

Ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord, brainstem, and brain (connect up to down)

43

Define association fibers

Connect between areas on the same side of the CNS

44

Define commissural fibers

Connect between areas on opposite sides of CNS (connect right to left)

45

Brain and spinal cord tissue develop from

Cells in the walls of the developing hollow neural tube

46

Ventricles of brain and spinal canal of spinal cord develop from

Hollow center of neural tube

47

What support mechanisms are there of the CNS?

Skull
Vertebrae
Ligaments
Muscles
Meninges
CSF
Blood Brain barrier

48

Define Meninges

Specialized connective tissue layers (Dura, arachnoid, pia matter)
Provide physical stability and shock absorption
Support blood vessels entering and exiting CNS tissue

49

Cerebrospinal fluid is

Produced in ventricles
Fills subarachnoid space

50

How is CSF produced

Diffused out of capillaries into choroid plexus into ventricles

51

Although CSF comes from blood and returns to blood

IT IS NOT BLOOD

52

What does CSF do?

Transports nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products
Provides cushioning and buoyancy

53

Blockage of CSF circulation

Causes pressure in ventricles (hydrocephalus)