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Flashcards in Nerves continued and lymphatics Deck (60):
1

What is the most anterior structure on a vertebrae ?

Vertebral body

2

What is the most posterior structure on a vertebrae ?

Spinous process

3

What lie in the vertebral foramen ?

The spinal cord

4

What part of the vertebrae articulates with a superior or inferior vertebrae ?

The articular processes

5

What are the names of the processes that protrude from the lateral aspects of the vertebrae ?

The transverse processes

6

What does the vertebral body consist of ?

Nucleus pulposus and Annulus fibrosis

7

What type of joint occurs between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae ?

Fibrocartilaginous joint (Symphysis)

8

What type of joint occurs between the articular facets of adjacent vertebrae ?

Synovial plane joints

9

How many cervical vertebrae are there ?

7

10

How many thoracic vertebrae ?

12

11

How many lumbar vertebrae ?

5

12

How many sacral vertebrae ?

5

13

How many coccygeal segments ?

4

14

What is the name for cervical vertebrae 1 ?

Atlas

15

What is the name for cervical vertebrae 2 ?

Axis

16

What is the name for cervical vertebrae 7 ?

Vertebrae Prominans

17

Describe a herniated disc and its consequences

When the nucleus pulposus ruptures through the annulus fibrosis and compresses a nerve root

18

What is the ligament that runs the most posterior along the spinous process of the vertebral column ?

Supraspinous ligaments

19

What is the ligaments that runs between spinous processes in the vertebral column ?

Interspinous ligaments

20

What is the ligament that runs most anterior along the vertebral column ?

Anterior longitudinal ligament

21

What is the ligament that runs along the anterior wall of the vertebral foramen ?

Posterior longitudinal ligament

22

What ligament connects the lamina of one vertebrae to the lamina of an adjacent vertebra ?

Ligamentum flavum

23

What ligament connects the anterior aspect of the vertebral bodies one to another ?

Anterior longitudinal ligament

24

What is the name given to the normal curvature of the cervical spine ?

Cervical lordosis

25

What is the name given to the normal curvature of the lumbar spine ?

Lumbar lordosis

26

What is the name given to the normal curvature of the thoracic spine ?

Thoracic kyphosis

27

What is the name given to the normal curvature of the sacral spine ?

Sacral kyphosis

28

What movements does the cervical spine permit ?

Lateral flexion

29

What movements does the thoracic spine permit ?

Rotation

30

What movements does the lumbar spine permit ?

Flexion and extension

31

What vertebral level is the vertebrae prominans palpated ?

C7

32

At what vertebral level is the spine of the scapula found?

T4

33

At what vertebral level is the inferior angle of the scapula found ?

T7

34

At what vertebral level is the summit of the illiac crest found ?

L4

35

Between what vertebrae would a lumbar puncture be carried out in an adult ?

L3 an L4

36

Between what vertebrae would a lumbar puncture be carried out in a child ?

L4 and L5

37

At what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate in an adult ?

L1/L2

38

At what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate in a child ?

L3

39

What are the lymph nodes that are found in the axilla called ?

Axillary lymph nodes

40

What are the lymph nodes that are found in the inguinal region called ?

Inguinal lymph nodes (superficial and deep)

41

What are the lymph nodes that are found around the pectoralis major muscle ?

Pectoral lymph nodes

42

What are the lymph nodes that are found at the bifurcation of the trachea ?

Tracheobronchial lymph nodes

43

What are the lymph nodes that are found around the root of arteries in the abdomen and the pelvis ?

Lumbar and pelvic lymph nodes

44

What are the lymph nodes that are found in the neck ?

Cervical lymph nodes (superficial and deep)

45

Where can the thoracic duct be found ?

Between the azygous vein and the thoracic aorta

46

At what vertebral level does the thoracic duct commence ?

L1 as the Cisterna Chyli

47

Where does this thoracic duct drain from and to ?

Drains the lymph fluid from all parts of the body, except the RUQ, into the left subclavian vein.

48

Where does the lymph from the RUQ drain ?

The right lymphatic duct which drains into the right subclavian vein

49

What is the name of the end of the spinal cord at the distal end ?

Conus medularis

50

What does the spinal cord terminate as ?

Filum terminale

51

What is the name for the branching of the spinal nerves from the conus medularis ?

Cauda equina

52

What are the layers that over the spinal cord from most outer to inner layer ?

Dura matter
Arachnoid matter
pia matter

53

Where on the spinal cord does the sympathetic outlfow occur ?

Lateral horn

54

Sympathetic outflow is what ?

Thoraco-lumbar

55

Once the sympathetic outflow has left the lateral horn and traveled along the ventral root where does it go ?

It will travel along the white communicans and may synapse in the sympathetic ganglion and then travels along the grey communicans and out of either the dorsal ramus or the ventral ramus

56

Sympathetic nerve fibers emerge from the spinal cord only between spinal levels T1-L2: How do they supply structures lying above T1 and below L2 ?

Sympathetic input can travel up and down the sympathetic chain which follows the entirety of the spine

57

What are the names for the nerves that do not synapse in the sympathetic chain but synapse else where in the body ?

Splanchic nerves

58

Where do cardiopulmonary splanchic's synapse ?

In the sympathetic chain

59

Abdominal splanchic's synapse where ?

Pre-aortic ganglia (not in the chain)

60

Parasympathetic outflow is what ?

Cranio-sacral