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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (117):
1

how many layers cover the brain

3
dura matter
eractnoid matter
pia matter

2

dura matter

outside, closest to vertebrae

3

erachnoid matter

middle layer

4

subaractnoid space

storage of cerebral spinal fluid

5

pia mater

closest to brain

6

what is serebral spinal fluid

clean blood

7

how many ventricles does the brain have

4

1 and 2 (lateral ventricles)(left and right)

3 and 4

8

serebral aquaduct

Connects 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle

9

where is cerebral spinal fluid stored in brain?

ventricles

10

ganglia

cluster of cell bodies in PNS

11

nuclei

cluster of cell bodies in CNS

12

CNS

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

13

PNS

peripheral nervous system

cranial nerves, spinal nerves and ganglia

14

what are the neuroglial cells of the CNS

astrocte
ependymal cell
microglial cell
oligodendrocyte

15

astocytes

most abundant
helps form blood brain barrior

16

ependymal cell

form coroid plexes
filters out cerebral spinal fluid at the end of each ventricle

17

microglial cells

only motile
phagocytic

18

oligodendrocytes

forms myelin sheath around axon in CNS

19

neuroglial cells of PNS

neurolemmoocytes (shwann)
satellite cells

20

neurolemmocytes (shwann cells)

make myelin sheath of PNS

21

satellite cells

flat cells around neuronal cell bodies

22

what are different types of neurons

unipolar
bipolar
multipolar
q

23

enterneuron

connects sensory neuron to motor neuron

24

division of the nervous system

central nervous system

peripheral nervous system

25

functions of nervous system

sensory: collecting information - receptors

brain: processing and evaluating information

motor: responding to information

26

what are the 2 overall pathways of the nervous system

sensory (afferent) - collecting info from environment
motor (efferent) -

27

characteristics of the sensory (afferent) nervous system

somatic - skeletal muscles, integument
visceral - autonomic, respiratory system, digestive system

28

characteristics of motor (efferent) nervous system

somatic
autonomic (includes visceral)

29

nerves that come out of brain

cranial nerves

30

nerves that come out of your spine

spinal nerves

31

sensory nervous system

afferent
recieves info from receptors in PNS and transmits it to CNS

32

somatic sensory

voluntary

touch, pain, pressure, vibration, proprioception

33

visceral sensory

involuntary

impulses from viscera

34

motor nervous system

efferent

sends impulses from CNS to muscles and glands

35

somatic motor

voluntary

impulses from CNS that cause contraction of skeletal muscles

36

autonomic motor

involuntary

impulses from the CNS that regulate smooth and cardiac muscles and glands

37

proprioception

knowing where your appendiges are

38

what are the two distinct types of cells within nervous system

neurons (nerve cells)
neuroglial (gial) cells

39

glioma

brain tumor

40

neurons

non mitotic

electrically excitable cells that initiate, transmit, and receive nerve impulses

41

neuroglial (glial) cells

non excitable cells that support and protect the neurons

mitotic

42

what is THE CELL of the nervous system

neurons

43

what is the longest cell in body

neuron

44

what is the basic structural unit of the nervous system

neurons

45

what does the neurons conduct

conduct nerve impulses from one part of the body to another part

46

features of neurons

high metabolic rate
conducts impulses
nonmititoc

47

structure of neuron

cell body
dendrites (alot)
axon (1 per neuron)

48

dendrites

gather information and send it to the rest of the body

49

dendrites in eye

depolarization of light

50

what does the cell body contain

nucleus
nucleolus
mitochondria
free ribosomes and rough ER
most of neurons cytoplasm

51

axon hillock

the region where the axon connects to the cell body

52

axons transmits nerve impulses where?

AWAY from the cells body

53

structure associated with axons

telodendria
synaptic knobs
myelin sheath

54

what are the different types of neurons

unipolar
bipolar
multipolar

55

unipolar neurons

single short process that branches like a T

56

bipolar neurons

two processes

one dendrite and one axon

57

multipolar neurons

many dendrties and a single axon

most common of all neurons

58

what does myelin do?

speeds up depolarization

59

saltatory conduction

faster conduction

jumping from 1 node to another

60

cell body is located where

never on the axon end

either in the dendrite end or in the middle

61

meninges

covering of brain and spinal cord

62

myelin sheath

fat layer to provide insulation and saltatory conduction

62

most of the neurons in our skin are

multipolar

63

where do we see bipolar neurons the most

in the eyes

64

function of sensory (afferent)

transmit impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS

65

function of motor (efferent) neurons

transmit impulses from CNS to muscles or glands

66

functional classification of association (interneurons)

facilitate communication b/w sensory and motor neurons

67

moving from any place in the body is

sensory

68

staying and whipping around in the brain

association (inteneurons)

69

brain down to body

motor (efferent)

70

what kind of neurons is your brain mostly

interneurons

71

characteristics of neuroglial cells

found in CNS and PNS
mitosis
physically protect and nourish neurons
more numerous than neurons

72

brain tumors that are more likely to be derived from glial cells than neurons

glioma

73

4 glial cells of the CNS

astocyte
ependymal cell
microglial cell
oligodendrocyte

74

astrocytes

most abundant glial cells in CNS

make blood brain barrier

75

what is the result of blood brain barrier?

cerebral spinal fluid

76

ependymal cells

help to form BBB and cerebral spinal fluid
filters out cerebral spinal fluid at the end of each ventricle
form choroid plexus

77

microglial cells

motile

phagocytic

78

oligodendrocytes

make up the myelin sheath

79

function of myelin

insulator of electrical activity

80

what are breaks in the myelin sheath that insulate electrical activity is

nodes of ranvier

81

what makes up white matter

myelinated axons

82

what makes up gray matter

everything else

83

myelin sheath of PNS

neurolemmocytes/shwann cell

84

myelin sheath of CNS

oligodendrocytes

85

what are breaks in the myelin sheath called?

nodes of ranvier

85

what are the two types of cells found in the PNS

satellite cells
neurolemmocytes (shwann) cells

86

how many pns and cns glial cells are there?

pns - 2
cns - 4

87

satellite cells

flat cells around ganglia that protects cell bodies

88

what's ganglia

bundle of cell bodies in PNS

89

what are bunches of nuclei called

center

90

what is another name for shwann cells

neurolemmocytes

91

what is the myelin sheath?

sheets of lipid/fat

92

neuron

nerve cell

93

neuroglial cell

helper cell

94

what is another name for neuroglial cell

glial cells

95

depolarization

electricity moving through neuron

96

what do nodes of ranvier allow to happen to the cell?

speed up depolarization

97

what kind of conduction allows nodes of ranvier to speed up depolarization

saltatory conduction

98

big center is called a

lobe

99

repolarization

the switch of sodium phosphate

100

resting potential

when the neuron is able to depolarize and is "waiting"

101

where is sodium at resting potential?

on the outside

102

where is potassium on resting potential?

on the inside

103

axon

part of a neuron that carries impulses "AWAY" from cell body

104

nerves

bundles of axons beginning and ending in the same place in PNS

105

tracts

bundles of axons in the CNS

106

plexus

intersection point of nerves of the PNS

107

how many locations of plexus are there

4

108

funiculi

bundles of "tracts" in CNS

109

where is funiculi found?

in the CNS

only in spinal cord

110

dendrite

structure off neuron that impulses towards cell body

111

cell body

contains most of cytoplasm and stores protein

112

nuclei

mass of cell bodies having same function in the CNS

113

center

a lot of cell bodies (nuclei) having same function

114

ganglia

mass of cell bodies in PNS

115

where is cell bodies in PNS found?

in motor cell of horn