Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (87):
Failure of posterior vertebral arches to close
Posterior vertebral arch defect most often limited to one or two vertebrae
Spina bifida occulta
No clinically apparent abnormalities
Posterior vertebral arches defect complicated by herniation of meninges through the defect
Spina bifida cystica
Hydrocephalus that occurs without obstruction or increased CSF production in disorders characterized by decreased cerebral mass, such as ischemic brain atrophy or advanced Alzheimer disease.
hydrocephalus ex vacuo
The increased volume of CSF is entirely within the ventricles
The increased volume of CSF is confined to the subarachnoid space
This is a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and medulla through the foramen magnum.
Neural tube defect that is almost always a characteristic of Arnold-Chiari malformation
Characteristics include facial abnormalities and developmental defects such as microcephaly, atrial septal defect, mental and growth retardation, and other anomalies.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
This autosomal dominant disorder includes nodular proliferations of multinucleated atypical astrocytes forming tubers (small white nodules scattered in the cerebral cortex and periventricular areas), adenoma sebaceum of the skin, and angiomyolipoma of thekidney.
Tuberous sclerosis syndrome
The most frequent sites of thrombotic occlusion in stroke
carotid bifurcation and the middle cerebral artery
The most frequent site of embolic occlusion in stroke
middle cerebral artery
Infarction caused by an obstruction of small vessels in the brain
Pure motor lacunar stroke most often results from lesions affecting the
Pure sensory lacunar stroke most often results from lesions affecting the
Most common cause of intracerebral hemorrhage
Minute dilations at small artery bifurcations associated with hypertension and may be sites of hemorrhagic rupture in the brain
Most common site of intracerebral hemorrhage
Basal ganglia and thalamus
Hematoma due to arterial hemorrhage in the head
Due to trauma
Epidural hematoma is caused by bleeding in
Middle meningeal artery
Clinical characteristics include a short period of consciousness (lucid interval), followed by rapidly developing signs of cerebral compression.
The cause is venous bleeding, most often from bridging veins joining the cerebrum to venous sinuses within the dura.
Gradual signs of cerebral compression
Osmotic imbibing of water resulting to slowly enlarging tumorlike mass
Most common portal of entry of infection in CNS
No lymphatics enter the CNS
In neonates and infants, pyogenic meningitis is most frequently caused by what 3 organisms?
group Bstreptococci, Escherichia coli and Listeria
In older infants, children, and young adults, the pyogenic meningitis is most frequently caused by what 2 organisms?
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis
Hemorrhagic destruction of the adrenal cortex, acute hypocorticism with circulatory collapse, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Most common cause of cerebral abscess
The most common agent of severe viral encephalitis.
herpes simplex virus
Viral infection characterized by degeneration and necrosis of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.
Location of negri bodies in rabies
Hippocampus and purkinje cells of the cerebellum
Giant cells with eosinophilic inclusions involving both the nucleus and cytoplasm are characteristics of what viral infection?
Vehicles for HIV entry into the nervous system and may serve as the viral reservoir.
Most common CNS manifestation of HIV
AIDS dementia complex
Direct effect of HIV
Cause of spongiform encephalopathy
In the past, this disease was transmitted by ritual ingestion of human brain by cannibals of New Guinea
Prion disease that has been putatively transmitted by corneal transplantation.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (subacute spongiform encephalopathy)
The cause is persistent infection with an altered measles virus; patients are infected in infancy but an asymptomatic interval of several years is followed by neurologic manifestations in late childhood or early teenage years.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Lack of M component of measles virus
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is caused by
JC polyoma type of papovavirus
preferentially infects oligodendrocytes, thus causing demyelination
The most common of the demyelinating diseases.
Confined to CNS
Nystagmus, intention tremor, and scanning speech are triad of? Seen in what cases?
Charcot triad; multiple sclerosis
This acute inflammatory demyelinating disease primarily involves peripheral nervous system and is often preceded by viral infection, immunization, or allergic reactions.
Clinical manifestations include ascending muscle weakness and paralysis beginning in the lower part of the lower extremities and ascending upward; respiratory failure and death can occur but most patients recover.
Causes albumino-cytologic dissociation of CSF, or a greatly increased protein concentration with only modest increase in cell count, which is an important diagnostic finding.
The most important cause of dementia.
Intracytoplasmic proximal dendritic eosinophilic inclusions consisting of actin? A morphologic abnormality of?
Hirano bodies; Alzheimer's disease
The second most frequent cause of dementia after Alzheimer disease
Mamillary bodies are characteristic of what brain condition?
Associated with hypertension and is characterized by the presence of multiple lacunar infarcts and progressive demyelination limited to the subcortical area, with characteristic sparing of the cortex.
Binswanger disease (subcortical leukoencephalopathy)
This disorder clinically resembles Alzheimer disease characterized by marked cortical atrophy, especially of the temporal and frontal lobes; swollen neurons; and round intracytoplasmic inclusions consisting of neurofilaments.
Mode of inheritance of huntington disease
Most commonly involved site of huntington disease
Striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and frontal complex
Huntington disease is characterized by increased number of what trinucleotide repeats within the huntingtin gene?
Histologic manifestations include depigmentation of the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus; damaged cells contain highly characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Lewy bodies)
Parkinson disease (paralysis agitans)
Degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons is characteristic.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig disease)
Other term for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Lou Gehrig disease
Parkinsonism with autonomic dysfunction and orthostatic hypotension.
The most common form of motor neuron disease.
Morphologic characteristics include degeneration and atrophy of the lateral corticospinal tracts, as well as of the anterior motor neurons of the cord.
Clinical manifestations include symmetric atrophy and fasciculation (lower motor neuron signs), as well as hyperreflexia, spasticity, and pathologic reflexes (upper motor neuron signs).
Motor neuron diaease in which brain stem and cranial nerve involvement predominate; characteristic findings include difficulty in swallowing and speaking and termination in respiratory failure.
Progressive bulbar palsy
An autosomal recessive lower motor neuron disease that manifests clinically in infancy.
Werdnig-Hoffmann syndrome (infantile progressive spinal muscular atrophy)
In adults, the majority of intracranial tumors are
In children, the majority of intracranial tumors are
The most common primary brain tumors
3 Astrocytomas that do not infiltrate the brain include
pilocytic astrocytomas, pleomorphic xanthroastrocytomas, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas
Diffuse astrocytomas that is classified as WHO grade II.
Low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas
Diffuse astrocytomas that is classified as WHO grade III.
Diffuse astrocytomas that is classified as WHO grade IV.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)
This is the most common primary intracranial malignancy
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)
This brain neoplasm is associated with marked anaplasia and pleomorphism; pronounced vascular changes with endothelial hyperplasia occur. Areas of necrosis and hemorrhage are surrounded by a “pseudopalisade” arrangement of tumor cells.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)
Very poor prognosis
This neoplasm presents as a slow-growing tumor in the middle-age group and typically arises and characterized by closely packed cells with large round nuclei surrounded by a clear halo of cytoplasm (“fried egg” appearance)
Location of ependymoma
Histologic characteristics of this CNS neoplasm include tubules or rosettes with cells encircling vessels orpointing toward a central lumen; tumor cells characteristically demonstrate blepharoplasts, rod-shaped structures near the nucleus representing basal bodies of cilia.
This is the second most common primary intracranial neoplasm
2 WHO grade II variants of meningioma
clear cell and chordoid variants
2 WHO grade III variants of meningioma
papillary and rhabdoid variants
Histologic characteristics of this brain neoplasm include a whorled pattern of concentrically arranged spindle cells and laminated calcified psammoma bodies.
A highly malignant tumor of the cerebellum characterized by sheets of closely packed cells with scant cytoplasm arranged in a rosette or perivascular pseudorosette pattern.
Oncogene amplification in neuroblastoma
Hemangioblastoma occur in
Brain neoplasm that produces erythropoietin leading to secondary polycythemia
Third most common primary intracranial neoplasm.
Acoustic neuroma (schwanomma)
Other term for schwanomma
Histological pattern of schwanomma characterized by interlacing bundles of elongated cells with palisading nuclei
Antoni B: looser, less cellular pattern than Antoni A
This disorder is characterized by hereditary (usually autosomal recessive) night blindness with progressive loss of central vision
This disorder is a major cause of impaired vision in the elderly.
Macular degeneration of the aged (senile macular degeneration)
This is the most common form of glaucoma.