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Medical Terminology > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (159):
1

An individual nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; the parenchyma of the nervous system

Neuron

2

Macroscopic bundles of the fibers (axons and dendrites) of microscopic neurons which carry electrical messages all over the body

Nerve

3

Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells

Acetycholine

4

Electrical discharges that travel the length of a nerve

Nerve Impulse

5

Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds

Receptor

6

Division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System

7

Division of the nervous system that consists nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord: cranial nerves, spinal nerve, and autonomic nerves

Peripheral Nervous System

8

12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (with one exception)

Cranial nerves

9

Cranial nerves that carries messages to and from the neck, chest and abdomen

Vagus Nerve

10

31 pairs of nerves that carry messages between the spinal cord and the chest, abdomen, and extremities

Spinal Nerves

11

A large network of nerves in the peripheral nervous system

Plexus

12

Nerves that carry messages related to changes in the environment towards the brain and spinal cord

Afferent (sensory) Nerves

13

Nerves that carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles of the body to tell them how to respond to a change in the environment

Efferent (motor) Nerves

14

System of nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs

Autonomic Nervous System

15

Autonomic nerves that stimulate and influence body functions involuntarily in times of stress and crisis

Sympathetic Nerves

16

Autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.

Parasympathetic Nerves

17

Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response

Stimulus

18

Branching fibers of a neuron that is the first to receive the nerve impulse

Dendrites

19

Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus

Cell Body

20

Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

Ganglia (sing: ganglion)

21

Fiber of the neuron that carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body

Axon

22

Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell and speeds up impulse conduction

Myelin Sheath

23

The space where the nervous impulse jumps from one neuron to another

Synapse

24

Chemical messenger releases at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve, muscle, or gland cell.

Neurotransmitter

25

Essential distinguishing tissue of an organ

Parenchyma

26

Connective and supportive tissue of an organ

Stroma

27

Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry electrical impulses. They can reproduce themselves unlike neurons

Glial (neuroglial) Cells

28

Type of glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries. Star-like in appearance

Astrocyte

29

Small phagocytic glial cells with many branching processes. They protect neurons in response to inflammation by removing waste products from the central nervous system

Microglial Cells

30

Glial cells with few branching dendrites and form the myelin sheath in the central nervous system

Oligodendroglial Cells (Oligodendrocytes)

31

Glial cells that line membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form CSF

Ependymal cells

32

Protective separation between the blood and brain cells. This makes it difficult for substances (such as anticancer drugs) to penetrate capillary walls and enter the brain

Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)

33

The largest part of the brain, the "thinking area". Controls many functions: thought, judgement, memory, association, and discrimination as well as voluntary muscular activity, speech and taste

Cerebrum

34

Sheet of nerve cells on the surface (outer region) of the cerebrum; gray matter of the brain

Cerebral Cortex

35

Sheets of neurons that form a rounded ridge, or folds, of cerebral cortex

Gyri

36

Grooves that separate the gyrus; fissure or depression

Sulcus

37

Spaces, or canals, in the interior middle of the cerebrum that contain CSF

Ventricles

38

Fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord from shock by acting like a cushion. Usually clear and colorless and contains lymphocytes, sugar, and protein

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

39

Process through which spinal fluid is withdrawn for diagnosis or relief of pressure on the brain

Lumbar Puncture (LP)

40

Relay center of the brain, it selectively processes and relays messages between the thalamus and cerebrum. Plays a major role in maintaining levels of awareness and consciousness

Thalamus

41

Portion of the brain under the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamus

42

Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata

Brainstem

43

Posterior part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement and maintains balance and posture

Cerebellum

44

Part of the brainstem that contains nerve fiber tracts that connect the cerebellum and cerebrum with the rest of the brain

Pons

45

Part of the brainstem that connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain. Nerve fibers cross over, left to right and right to left; contains centers to regulate heart, blood vessels, and respiratory center

Medulla Oblongata

46

Column of nervous tissue extending from the medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra within the vertebral column. Carries all the nerves to and from the lower limbs and lower part of the body, and is a pathway for impulses going to and from the brain

Spinal Cord

47

Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

Cuada Equina

48

Located within the inner region of the spinal cord, it is made up of cell bodies and dendrites

Gray Matter

49

Located within the outer region of the spinal cord, it is made up of nerve fiber tracts (axons) with myelin sheaths

White matter

50

Three layers of connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

Meninges

51

Thick, tough outermost membrane of the meninges which surround and protect the brain and spinal cord

Dura Mater (Dural Membrane)

52

Space below the Dural membrane

Subdural space

53

Spider-like second layer surrounding the spinal cord and brain, it is loosely attached to the other membranes by web-like fibers, so that there is space for fluid btw fibers and third membrane layer

Arachnoid Membrane

54

Space below the arachnoid membrane that contain CSF

Subarachnoid space

55

Layer closest to the brain and spinal cord containing connective tissue with a rich supply of blood vessels

Pia Mater

56

Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot

Sciatic Nerve

57

Congenital condition of partial or complete absence of brain matter

Anencephaly

58

Rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain

Glioblastoma

59

Leptomeningeal

The pia and arachnoid membranes of the brain and spinal cord because of their thin, slender structure

60

-ine

pertaining to

61

analgesia

Absence of sensitivity to pain

62

hypalgesia

Diminished sensitivity to pain

63

Para- or Par-

Abnormal

64

bradykinesia

Condition of slow movement

65

dyskinesia

Impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements. Abnormal, involuntary, spasmodic movements

66

akinetic

Pertaining to loss or absence of voluntary movement

67

developmental reading disorder occurring when the brain does not properly recognize, process, or interpret language

Dyslexia

68

Syncope

Fainting

69

Form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings. Minor epileptic seizure

Absence Seizure

70

Enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke)

Anuerysm

71

Destruction of myelin on axons of neurons (as in multiplesclerosis)

Demyelination

72

Clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel

Embolus

73

Occlusion

Blockage

74

AD

Alzheimer Disease

75

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig Disease)

76

BBB

Blood Brain Barrier

77

CT

Computed tomography

78

CVA

Cerebrovascular accident

79

EEG

Electroencephalography

80

LP

Lumbar Puncture

81

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

82

MRA

Magnetic Resonance Analgesia

83

MS

Multiplesclerosis

84

PET

Positron Emission Tomography

85

Sz

Seizure

86

TBI

Traumatic Brain Injury

87

TLE

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

88

Abnormal accumulation of CSF in the brain

Hydrocephalus

89

Congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column cause by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect)

Spina Bifida

90

Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem

ALS- Amyotrphic Lateral Sclerosis

91

Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity

Epilepsy

92

Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration

Huntington Disease

93

Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue

Multiple Sclerosis- MS

94

Palsy

Paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)

95

Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles due to the inability of a neurotransmitter (acytecholine) to transmit impulses from nerve cells to muscle cells

Myasthenia Gravis- MG

96

Partial paralysis and lack of muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen (hypoxia) or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period

Cerebral Palsy

97

paralysis on one side of the face

Bell's Palsy

98

Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement

Parkinson's Disease

99

Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves

Herpes Zoster

100

Stroke; disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain

Cerebrovascular Accident- CVA

101

Thrombus

Blood Clot

102

Hemorrhagic

a blood vessel breaks and bleeding occurs

103

x-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material

Cerebral angiography

104

Computerized x-ray technique that generates multiple images of the brain and spinal cord

CT- computed tomography of the brain

105

Magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy create images of the brain and spinal cord

MRI- Magnetic Resonance Imaging

106

Radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells

PET- Positron emission tomography scan

107

CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebra for analysis

Lumbar Puncture- LP

108

Hemiparesis

unilateral paralysis

109

Analgesics

medication to relieve pain

110

Type of medication that relieves pain by stopping inflammation

NSAID- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

111

Type of medication that relieves fever and mild pain but is not an anti-inflammatory drug

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

112

Typr of drug that relieves pain by affecting receptors in the brain to control the perception of pain

Narcotics

113

Paresthesia

abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.

114

Poliomyelitis

Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord

115

Condition of decreased coordination

Ataxia

116

Condition of increased sensation

Hyperesthesia

117

Difficulty with speech

Aphasia

118

Inability to perform a task

Motor apraxia

119

Inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects

Apraxia

120

nervous exhaustion (lack of strength) and fatigue

Neurasthenia

121

weakness and partial loss of movement

Paresis

122

The spinal column is imperfectly joined (a split in vertebra occurs) and part of the meninges and spinal cord can herniate out of the spinal cavity

Myelomeningocele

123

Cerebral Contusion

bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head

124

TBI caused by a blow to the head

Cerebral Concussion

125

Blockage of a blood vessel in the cerebrum caused by material from another part of the body that suddenly occludes the vessel

Cerebral Embolus

126

Collection of blood in the brain (can cause a stroke)

Cerebral Hemorrhage

127

peculiar sensation experienced by a patient before onset of a seizure

aura

128

Blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time

transient ischemic attack

129

Major epileptic seizure

Tonic-clonic seizure

130

cerebell/o

cerebellum

131

Cerebr/o

Cerebrum

132

Dur/o

Dura mater

133

Encephal/o

brain

134

Gli/o

Glial cells

135

Lept/o

thin, slender

136

Mening/o, meningi/o

Meninges

137

my/o

muscle

138

neur/o

nerve

139

pont/o

pons

140

radicul/o

spinal nerve root

141

thalam/o

thalamus

142

myel/o

spinal cord (can mean bone marrow in other contexts)

143

thec/o

meninge's sheath

144

vag/o

vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)

145

alges/o, -algesia

excessive sensitivity to pain

146

caus/o

burning

147

comat/o

deep sleep (coma)

148

esthesi/o, -esthesia

nervous sensation, feeling

149

kines/0, kinesi/o, -kinesia, kinesis, -kinetic

movement

150

-algia

pain

151

-lepsy

seizure

152

lex/o

word, phrase

153

-paresis

weakness

154

-phasia

speech

155

tax/o

order, coordination

156

syncop/o

to cut off, to cut short

157

-praxia

action

158

-sthenia

strength

159

-plegia

paralysis