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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (32):
1

fast-acting control system that employs nerve impulses to trigger muscle contraction or gland secretion

nervous system

2

gathered information, 5 senses

sensory input

3

processes and interprets the sensory input and make decisions about what should be done

integration

4

consists of the brain and spinal cord, interpret incoming sensory information and issue instructions based on past experience and current conditions

central nervous system

5

outside CNS, nerves that extend from brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

6

allows us to consciously, or voluntarily, control our skeletal muscles

somatic nervous system

7

regulates events that are automatic, or involuntary, such as the activity of smooth and cardiac muscles and glands

autonomic nervous system

8

the nonneuronal tissue of the central nervous system that performs supportive and other functions; also called glia

neuroglia

9

abundant star-shaped cells that account for nearly half the neural tissue

astrocytes

10

spiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria

microglia

11

glial cells that line the cavities of the brain and the spinal cord, beating of cilia helps to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid that fills the cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS

ependymal cells

12

gli that wrap their flat extensions tightly around the nerve fibers, producing fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths

oligodendrocytes

13

form the myelin sheaths around the nerve fibers found in the PNS

Schwann cells

14

act as protective, cushioning cells in myelin sheath

satellite cells

15

transmit messages from one part of the body to another

neurons

16

the branching extensions of neyrons that carry electricl signals to the cell body; the receptive portion of a nerve cell

dendrites

17

neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent process; the conducting portion of a nerve cell

axons

18

conelike region of the cell body

axon hillock

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specialized to release the neurotransmitters of the presynaptic cell

axon terminals

20

white, fatty insulant with a waxy appearance

myelin

21

a gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells

nodes of Ranvier

22

the loss of a state of polarity; the loss of a negative charge inside the plasma membrane

depolarization

23

an electrical event occuring when a stimulus of sufficient intensity is applied to a neuron or muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse the polarity

action potential

24

restoration of the membrane potential to the initial resting (polarized) state

repolarization

25

the largest part of the brain; consists of the right and left cerebral hemispheres

cerebrum

26

integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation

parietal lobe

27

part of the brain that controls important cognitive skills in humans, such as emotional expression, problem solving, memory, language, judgment, and sexual behavior

frontal lobe

28

the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex

occipital lobe

29

involved in primary auditory perception, such as hearing, and holds the primary auditory cortex

temporal lobe

30

the darker tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites

gray matter

31

composed of bundles, which connect various gray matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neuron

cerebral white matter

32

the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity

cerebellum