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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (32):
1

nervous System

fast acting control system that employs nerve impulses to trigger muscle contraction or gland secretion

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sensory input

Receptors monitor change inside and outside of the body and send info to integrating center

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integration

A function in the nervous system which processes and Interprets sensory input and then makes decisions

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central nervous system

Brain and Spinal Cord. Integrating and command center

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peripheral nervous system

Outside of the CNS; consists of nerves extending from the brain and spinal cord. they link all regions of the body to the CNS

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somatic nervous system

is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles

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autonomic nervous system

Controls the function of the visceral organs, often called involuntary nervous system

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neurologia

the science of the nerves and the nervous system, especially of the diseases affecting them

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astrocytes

star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord

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microglia

glial cells derived from mesoderm that function as macrophages (scavengers) in the central nervous system and form part of the reticuloendothelial system

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ependymal cells

type of neuronal support cell (neuroglia) that forms the epithelial lining of the ventricles (cavities) in the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord

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oligodendrocytes

a glial cell similar to an astrocyte but with fewer protuberances, concerned with the production of myelin in the central nervous system

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Schwann cells

form a fatty material called myelin to insulate the axons in the peripheral nervous system

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satellite cells

a cell surrounding a ganglion cell or a stem cell that lies adjacent to a skeletal muscle fiber and plays a role in muscle growth, repair, and regeneration

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neurons

Transmit electrical signals

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dendrites

neurons next to one another are tipped by synapses (tiny transmitters and receivers for chemical messages between the cells).

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axons

transmit information to different neurons, muscles, and glands

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axon hillock

the last site in the soma where membrane potentials propagated from synaptic inputs are summated before being transmitted to the axon

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axon terminals

the very end of a branch of a nerve's axon

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myelin

fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer

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nodes of Ranvier

a gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells

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depolarization

loss of polarization; especially : loss of the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the plasma membrane of a muscle or nerve cell due to a change in permeability and migration of sodium ions to the interior

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action potential

a momentary reversal in electrical potential across a plasma membrane (as of a neuron or muscle fiber) that occurs when a cell has been activated by a stimulus

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repolarization

refers to the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value just after the depolarization phase of an action potential has changed the membrane potential to a positive value

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cerebrum

It is responsible for the integration of complex sensory and neural functions and the initiation and coordination of voluntary activity in the body

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parietal lobe

carries out some very specific functions. As a part of the cortex, it has a lot of responsibilities and has to be able to process sensory information

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frontal lobe

plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions, or any plane parallel to the central coronal plane

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occipital lobe

the rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain

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temporal lobe

located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. The temporal lobe is involved in processing sensory input into derived meanings for the appropriate retention of visual memory, language comprehension, and emotion association

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gray matter

neural tissue especially of the brain and spinal cord that contains cell bodies as well as nerve fibers, has a brownish gray color, and forms most of the cortex and nuclei of the brain, the columns of the spinal cord, and the bodies of ganglia

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cerebral white matter

nerve tissue, especially of the brain and spinal cord, which primarily contains myelinated fibers and is nearly white in color

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cerebellum

the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity