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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (36):
1

Nervous System

master controlling and communicating system of the body

2

Functions of the Nervous System

1. Sensory Input: monitor stimuli

2. Integrating: interpretation of sensory input

3. Motor Output: response to stimuli

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Central Nervous System

brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

cranial + nerves

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Sensory (afferent)

division of PNS

- receives and carries info to the central nervous system

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Motor (efferent)

division of PNS

- sends messages and goes away from the central nervous system

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Sensory > Somatic

- sight
- smell
- taste
- hearing

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Sensory > Autonomic

- tactile sense
(touch, pressure, tickle, itch)

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Motor > Somatic

Skeletal muscles

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Motor > Autonomic

cardiac, smooth muscles and glands

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Motor > Autonomic > Sympatheic

arouses body to deal with stress

- flight/fight response

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Motor > Autonomic > Parasympathetic

calms body to a relaxed state

- rest/digest

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Supporting Cells

cells that surround and wrap neurons

- AKA: neuroglia/glial cells

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Neurons

excitable cells that transmit electrical signals

- long-lived, amitotic + high metabolic rate

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Astrocyte

- largest + most abundant

- anchor neurons to capillaries

- guide migration of young neurons

- control chemical environment

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Microglial Cells

- tiny and ovoid

- their job is to phagocytize (eat) bad stuff (bacteria)

17

Ependymal Cells

- cuboidal, cilia

- make and circulate cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)

- found lining the brain and spinal cord

18

Oligodendrocyte

- surrounds neurons and makes myelin

- no neurilemma (can’t regenerate)

- secrete chemical to prevent regeneration because the theory that they don’t want paths to cross

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Myelin

insulated neurons and makes the messages travel faster

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Schwann Cells

- surrounds neurons in PNS

- myelinate them and increase the speed of messages

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Satellite Cells

- clean up around the neurons

- provide nutrients for the neurons

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Amitotic

cannot go through mitosis = can’t make new cells

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Nucleus

brain of cell

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Nucleous

inside of nucleus

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Nissl Bodies

rough ER

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Dendrites

receive messages toward cell body

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Cell Body

AKA: soma or perikaryon

- says what to do with messages

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Axon

carries messages away from the cell body

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Schwann

insulated axon to sped up messages

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Node d Ranvier

gap between schwann cell

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Axon Terminal

secretes neurotransmitters

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Neurilemma

nucleus of schwann cell and cytoplasm of schwann cell

- allows neurons to regenerate

33

Multiple Sclerosis

autoimmune disease in which your immune system attack + destroys myelin sheath

- possible causes: genes, environment, virus

- symptoms: slower reaction time, muscle shakes,

- no cure, treat symptoms

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White Matter

dense collection of myelinated fibers

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Gray Matter

mostly soma and unmyelinated fibers

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Neuron Classification by structure or function

Functional neurons:

- Sensory (afferent)= transmit impulses toward the CNS

- Motor (efferent)= carry impulses away from the CNS

- Interneurons (association neurons)= shuttle signals through CNS pathways