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Graded potential

a change in the membrane potential that is localized to one area of the plasma membrane; can result from 1) chemical signals binding to their receptors, 2) changes in the voltage across the plasma membrane 3) mechanical stimulation 4) temperature changes 5) spontaneous changes in membrane permeability

1

injury to T:1 - L1 causes?

Paraplegic paralysis

2

Refractory period

once an action potential is produced at a given point on the plasma membrane, the sensitivity of that area to further stimulation decreases for a time

3

Absolute refractory period

the first part of the refractory period during which complete insensitivity exists to another stimulus

4

Action potential

electrical impulses carried along the length of the axons; always the same regardless of stimulus; the underlying functional feature of the nervous system

5

Astrocytes

astrocytes first of the supporting cells;branched glial cells;
they cling to neurons and their synaptic endings, and cover capillaries; anchor neurons to their nutrient supplies, guide migration of young neurons, control the chemical environment, looks like a spider web

6

CNS

brain and spinal cord
integration and command center

7

Diencephalon

central core of the forebrain; deepest part of the brain; consists of three paired structures - thalamus,; hypothalamus, and epithalamus; encloses the third ventricle

8

Gyri

Ridges of cerebral hemispheres

9

Nodes of Ranvier

gaps in the myelin sheath between adjacent schwann cells; they are the sites where axon collaterals can emerge

10

Pons

conducting bridge between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata; helps out with regulation of respirations, touch, pain, and temperature

11

SNS

conscious control of skeletal muscles

12

Nerve

bundle of axons and their sheaths; connects to the CNS to sensory receptors, muscles, and glands

13

Synapse

junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron

14

Somatic vs autonomic

somatic (conscious control of skeletal muscles)
autonomic (regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands)

15

Blood brain barrier

protective mechanism that allows you to maintain a stable internal environment
selectively lets things in an out of the brain
if it can be diffused through the capillaries, it can be diffused to the brain

16

Broca's area

a motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue

17

Mature neurons are:

Amniotic

18

Where are sensory receptors

Peripheral nervous system

19

CSF

watery solution that contains less protein and different ion concentrations than plasma; forms a liquid cushion that gives buoyancy to the CNS organs

20

Cerebral white matter

consists of deep myelinated fibers and their tracts
it is responsible for communication between:
the cerebral cortex and lower CNS center, and areas of the cerebrum

21

Dendrite

conduct the impulses into the soma or cell body

22

Synaptic cleft

fluid-filled space separating the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons; prevents nerve impulses from directly passing from one neuron to the next

23

Axon

Carries information away from soma

24

Reticular diffusions

diffuse system that involve the "cycles" of activity, such as the sleep-wake cycle

25

Oligodendrocytes

branches cells that wrap CNS nerve fibers

26

Schwann cells (neuroelmmocytes)

surround fibers of the PNS

27

sympathetic division

system that controls the sweat glands

28

sympathetic and parasympathetic

the divisions of the ANS (autonomic nervous system)

29

Lumbar plexus branch off

L1-L4
Femoral (anterior thigh)
Obturator (medial thigh)

30

Brachial plexus branch off

C5-C8 and T1
Ulnar (forearm and hand)
Median (forearm and hand)
Axillary (shoulder)
Musculocutaneous (anterior arm)
Radial (posterior arm)

31

cervical plexus branch off

ventral rami of C1 - C4
Phrenic (diaphragm)
Ansa cervicalis

32

Function of hypothalamus

regulates blood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat, digestive tract motility, rate and depth of breathing and many other visceral activities
perception of pleasure, fear, and rage
maintains normal body temperature
regulates feelings of hunger and satiety
regulates sleep and the sleep cycle

33

Various neural circuits

Divergent - spread
Convergent - 1 starts and more come off
Reverberating - keeps repeating

34

Transmitted nerve impulse

Movement of action potential along a nerve fiber in response to stimuli

35

Ganglia

Collection of nerve cell bodies found outside CNS

36

How are basic reflexes learned?

Inate- automatically given at birth

Basic - learned through modifying behavior

37

How are impulses carried to and from cell?

Axons - carry signals away from

Dendrites - carry signals to

38

If you injure the hypothalamus?

Hypothalamus controls temperature, endocrine, & thirst

So you would see issues in those areas

39

Importance of nodes of ranvier

?

40

Knee jerk reflex

Golgi tendon reflex (releases muscles)

41

Largest cranial nerve

Trigeminal

42

What is the resting & digesting division of ANS?

Parasympathetic

43

Major relay for sensory information

Thalamus

44

Nickname for sympathetic nervous system

Fight or flight

45

Number of spinal pairs

31

46

Association neuron

Interneuron

Any neuron with a specific area it is confined to (like olfactory)

47

Sheath of schwann cell

?

48

Voltage is measured how around the membrane potential

?

49

What are afferent nerves

Neuron that conducts impulses toward CNS from peripheral body

50

Direct acting neurotransmitters

Opens gates to respond quickly

So--- ACH is a quick responding one

51

Nonspecific ascending pathways

Are involved in emotional aspects of perception

Consist of polymodal neurons

Alertness and arousal

52

Effector organs of ANS

Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
Glands

53

Water balance regulation
Temperature
Metabolism

Hypothalamus

54

ANS function

Homeostasis
Regulates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and gland activity

55

What are olfactory receptors

Specialized cell in mucous membrane of nose

Receptor for smell

56

Structures of a neuron

Cell body (soma)
Dendrite
Axon

57

Exterorceptors sense

Pain and temperature

58

Nociceptors sense

Pain and deep touch

59

Central sulcus separate?

Sulci are shallow grooves in hemispheres

So... Separates frontal and occipital lobes

60

Ependymal cells?

Lining of ventricular cavities (brain ) and line central canal of spinal cord

61

Phrenic nerve

Stimulates diaphragm -- comes off cervical plexus

62

Temporal lobe

Auditory

63

Occipital lobe

Visual

64

Three major plexuses

Cervical, brachial, lumbar

(Thoracic has none)

65

Action potential

Generates electrical current that starts impulse

66

Medulla oblongata controls

Breathing, digestion, blood flow, temperature, vomiting, swallowing

67

Medulla controls

Respirations