NERVOUS SYSTEM PT 2 - STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CNS Flashcards Preview

T1 PHYSIOLOGY > NERVOUS SYSTEM PT 2 - STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in NERVOUS SYSTEM PT 2 - STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CNS Deck (49):
1

Define Nucleus/Nuclei.

A cluster of neurons in the CNS

2

Define Ganglion/Ganglia.

A cluster of neurons in the PNS

3

Define a 'Tract'?

Axon bundles that interconnect neurons in the CNS

4

What is a 'Nerve'?

Axon bundles in the PNS

5

What do Peripheral Nerves connect?

Connects the spinal cord to the periphery

6

What do Cranial Nerves connect?

Connects the brain to periphery

7

Define Grey Matter?

Collection of UNMYELINATED NERVE FIBRES in the CNS

8

Define White Matter.

Collection of MYELINATED AXONS in the CNS

9

The extension of the spinal cord run from?

The brain stem to L2

10

What is the Conus Medullaris?

A structure at L2 where the spinal cord tapers into

11

What is the Cauda Equina?

Roots of spinal nerves below the Conus Medullaris

12

What is the Anterior Median Fissure and Posterior Median Sulcus?

Grooves that divide white matter into left and right sides

13

What is a Central Canal?

A tube centre of the spinal cord that contains CSF

14

GREY MATTER is divided into regions called?

HORNS

15

Which neurons pass through the Posterior/Dorsal Horns contain?

Incoming sensory neurons and interneurons

16

Which neurons pass through the Anterior/Ventral Horns contain?

Motor Nuclei

17

Where are Lateral Horns present, and what do they contain?

Present in thoracic, upper lumbar, and sacral portion. Contains Sympathetic Nuclei

18

WHITE MATTER is divided into 3 regions called?

COLUMNS

19

Each white matter column contains ________ that have a common origin/destination.

Tract (axon bundles)

20

Sensory/Ascending Tracts conduct APs _______ the brain.

Toward

21

Motor/Descending Tracts conduct APs _______ the brain.

Away

22

What are the 3 regions of the brain stem?

- Mid Brain
- Pons
- Medulla Oblongata

23

The Midbrain of the brain stem, is the centre for?

Tracking visual activities and hearing

24

The Pons centre of the brain stem controls?

Breathing

25

The Medulla Oblongata of the brain stem, is the centre control for?

Heart rate
Blood pressure
Swallowing
Vomiting

26

What are Substantia Nigra?

A nuclei that make dopamine

27

What is Reticular Formation?

A net-like formation of neural tissue extending through brainstem, containing the Reticular Activating System (RAS)

28

What is the function of the Reticular Activating System (RAS)?

Consciousness and prevents sensory overload

29

The function of the Cerebellum is?

Coordinates skeletal muscle contraction, posture and balance

30

What are the 3 structures of the Diencephalon?

- Hypothalamus
- Thalamus
- Epithalamus

31

Hypothalamus has a major role in...?

Regulating hemostatsis

32

The Thalamus functions as?

The relay station for sensory input to the cerebral cortex

33

What does the Epithalamus contain and its function?

Contains the Pineal Gland and involved in smelling

34

The 4 structures of the brain are?

- Brain Stem
- Cerebellum
- Diencephalon
- Cerebrum

35

The Cerebrum are 2 hemispheres that consist of?

- The Cerebral Cortex
- White Matter
- Basal Ganglia

36

What are Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortex involved in?

Perception

37

What are Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex involved in?

Voluntary movements

38

What functions does the Association Areas (White Matter) of the Cerebrum control?

Memory
Emotion
Personality Traits

39

The Basal Ganglia (Basal Nuclei) of the Cerebrum functions to?

Regulate movements/subconscious contractions

40

What are the 3 structures included in the Limbic System?

- Hypothalamus
- Hippocampus
- Amygdala

41

What is the function of the Hippocampus of the Limbic System?

Converts short term memory into long term memory

42

What is the function of Amygdala of the Limbic System?

Emotional function

43

What is Meninges?

3 layers of CT the encircle the brain and spinal cord

44

The tough outer layer of the Meninges is known as?

Dura Mater

45

The middle layer of the Meninges is the?

Arachnoid Membrane

46

The inner layer, under the Arachnoid Membrane of the Meninges is the?

Pia Mater

47

Define the Epidural Space.

A adipose and CT space between the vertebral canal and dura mater (not found in brain)

48

Define the Subdural Space.

Interstitial fluid space between Dura Mater and Arachnoid Membrane

49

Define the Subarachnoid Space.

CSF space between Arachnoid Membrane and Pia Mater