Nervous System: Symptomatic & Diagnostic Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nervous System: Symptomatic & Diagnostic Terms Deck (137):
1

condition without speech; impairment due to localized brain injury that affects understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language

aphasia

2

condition of difficult articulation; group of related speech impairments that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength, and timing of motor movement as a result of paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles

dysarthria

3

difficulty speaking

dysphasia

4

general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scale

coma

5

state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function- there are many causes, including fever, shock, or drug overdose

delirium

6

impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion

dementia

7

loss of impairment of muscle function

motor deficit

8

loss or impairment of sensation

sensory deficit

9

pain along the course of a nerve

neuralgia

10

temporary or permanent loss of motor control

paralysis

11

defective or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion

flaccid paralysis

12

stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder

spastic paralysis

13

partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body

hemiparesis

14

pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots

sciatica

15



sudden, transient disturbance in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses, with or without convulsion

seizure

16

to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles

convulsion

17

fainting

syncope

18

evoking a response by touching

tactile stimulation

19

increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain

hyperesthesia

20

abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause

paresthesia

21

any of many types of loss of neurological function associated with interpretation of sensory information

agnosia

22

inability to judge the form of an object by touch

astereognosis

23

inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body

atopognosis

24

disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death

Alzheimer disease

25

-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis AKA Lou Gehrig disease
-a condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms, legs, muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing to total paralysis and death

ALS

26

-CP
-condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination

cerebral palsy

27

disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain

cerebrovascular disease

28

hardening of the arteries in the brain

cerebral arteriosclerosis

29

condition of lipid buildup within the blood vessels of the brain

cerebral atherosclerosis

30

dilation of a blood vessel in the brain

cerebral aneurysm

31

presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain

cerebral thrombosis

32

obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation

cerebral embolism

33

CVA



-cerebrovascular accident stroke
-damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease i.e. occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus or thrombus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm

34

TIA

-transient ischemic attack
-brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficits, often precedes a CVA

35

ischemia of the anterior circulation of the brain

carotid TIA

36

ischemia of the posterior circulation of the brain

vertebrobasilar TIA

37

inflammation of the brain

encephalitis

38

disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures

epilepsy

39

stiffening-jerking: a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups- previously termed grand mal seizure

tonic-clonic

40

seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement- previously termed little mal

absence

41

seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms

partial

42

tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy

glioma

43

protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression of the nerve root

herniated disk

44

viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilaterally, aka shingles

herpes zoster

45

hereditary disease of the central nervous system

Huntington disease (HD)

46

characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia

Huntington chorea

47

aka hydrocephaly
-abnormal accumulation cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor

hydrocephalus

48

benign tumor of the coverings of the brain

meningioma

49

inflammation of the meninges

meningitis

50

paroxysmal attacks of mostly unilateral headache often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, and/or vomiting, lasting hours or days caused by inflammation of arteries

migraine headache

51

-multiple sclerosis
-disease of the central nervous system characterized by demyelination of nerve fibers with episodes of neurological dysfunction followed by recovery

MS

52



autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction causing a progressive decrease muscle strength with activity and a return of strength after a period of rest

myasthenia gravis

53

inflammation of the spinal cord

myelitis

54

sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis, and dreams intruding while awake

narcolepsy

55

condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem resulting in a decrease in dopamine ; characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements, usually occurring later in life

Parkinson disease

56

paralysis

plegia

57

paralysis on one side of the body

hemiplegia

58

paralysis from the waist down

paraplegia

59

paralysis of all four limbs

quadriplegia

60

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis

poliomyelitis

61

inflammation involving two or more nerves, often owing to a nutritional deficiency, such as a lack of thiamine

polyneuritis

62

condition of abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system in response to pain perception, usually as a result of an injury to an extremity; symptoms include persistent burning pain, edema, joint tenderness, changes in skin color and temperature, and abnormal sweating at the pain site- decreased mobility caused by pain can lead to muscle atrophy and loss of motor function

reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)

63

periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring

sleep apnea

64

congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue

spina bifida

65

-electroencephalogram
-record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain used to identify neurological conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness

EEG

66

record of minute electrical potentials that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders- also used to monitor the neurological function of patients during surgery

evoked potentials

67

electrical shock of peripheral nerves to record time of conduction; used to diagnose various peripheral nervous system diseases

nerve conduction velocity (NCV)

68

recording of various aspects of sleep to diagnose sleep disorders

polysomnography (PSG)

69

introduction of specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing; aka spinal tap

lumbar puncture (LP)

70

-magnetic resonance imaging
-nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radio frequency waves to visualize anatomical structures, such as the tissues of the brain and spinal cord

MRI

71

use of magnetic resonance in imaging of the blood vessels- useful in detecting pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis

magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

72

magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the vessels of the circle of willis

intracranial MRA

73

magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery

extracranial MRA

74

radionuclide organ imagin

nuclear medicine imaging

75

-single photon emission computed tomography
- scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of the brain after administration of the radioactive isotopes

SPECT brain scan

76

technique combining medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology- used to study stroke, it provides greater accuracy than SPECT but is used less often because of the cost and limited availability of the radioisotopes

positron emission tomography (PET)

77

x-ray imaging

radiography

78

x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium

cerebral angiogram

79

computed tomographic x-ray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities within

computed tomography

80

x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium

myelogram

81

test performed to observe the body's response to a stimulus

reflex testing

82

DTR

-deep tendon reflexes
-involuntary muscle contractions after percussion at a tendon, indicates function

83

pathological response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot ; a positive sign is indicated when the toes dorsiflex

babinski sign or reflex

84

image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels- used in diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma

transcranial sonogram

85

excision of part of the skull to approach the brain

craniectomy

86

incision into the skull to approach the brain

craniotomy

87

removal of a herniated disk often done percutaneously

diskectomy

88

excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord

laminectomy

89

flattened posterior portion of the vertebral arch

vertebral lamina

90

utilization of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery

microsurgery

91



diagnosis and treatment of disorders within cerebral blood vessels performed in a specialized angiographic laboratory by interventional neuroradiologists; common procedures include:
-cerebral angioplasty and stent
-embolization

neuroendovascular surgery

92

surgical repair of a nerve

neuroplasty

93

spinal fusion

spondylosyndesis

94

emotional feeling or mood

affect

95



significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction

flat affect

96

lack of interest or display of emotion

apathy

97



state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate

catatonia

98

persistent belief that has no basis in reality

delusion

99

person's false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power

grandiose delusion

100

persons's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with intent to harm

persecutory delusion

101

restless, dissatisfied mood

dysphoria

102

exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being

euphoria

103

false perception of the senses for which there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things

hallucination

104

formation of thoughts or ideas

ideation

105

state of abnormal elation and increased activity

mania

106

psychological condition in which anxiety is prominent

neurosis

107

mental condition characterized by distortion of reality, resulting in the inability to communicate or function with one's environment

psychosis

108

thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction

thought disorder

109

CNS

central nervous system

110

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

111



-aka major depressive illness, clinical depression major affective disorder, unipolar disorder
-disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue and loss of interest

major depression

112

milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression persisting for at least 2 years

dysthmia

113

affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme ups and downs)

manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)

114

affective disorders marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

115

most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, and uncontrollable worry about everyday problems that affects the ability to relax or concentrate but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia- symptoms must exist for atleast 6 months before a diagnosis can be made

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

116



disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings including physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack such as rapid heart rate, chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, sweating, and dizziness, with a general sense of loss of control or feeling that death is imminent; often progresses to agoraphobia

panic disorder (PD)

117

exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia, claustrophobia, or acrophobia

phobia

118

PTSD

-posttraumatic stress disorder
-condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, illness, or injury that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmare, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections

119

OCD

-obsessive compulsive disorder
-anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions, which can interfere with all aspect's of a person's daily life

120

preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance of the contrary

hypochondriasis

121



developmental disability that commonly appearing during the first 3 years of life, resulting from a neurological disorder affecting brain function, evidence by difficulties with vertebral and non vertebral communication, and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself in social interactions; individuals with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking, repetitive hand movements, and commonly become preoccupied with observing small objects or moving parts or performing meaningless rituals

autism

122

developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading, spelling, and self-expression

dyslexia

123

ADHD

-attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
-dysfunction characterized by consistent hyper activity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with the ability to function normally at school, home, or work; specific criteria must be met for diagnosis

124

condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities

mental retardation

125

severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in refusal to eat and body weight well below normal

anorexia nervosa

126

eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise

bulimia nervosa

127

mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid abuse, or polysubstance abuse

substance abuse disorders

128

-disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment characterized by a broad range of "positive" and "negative" symptoms
-positive symptoms: distortions of normal function i.e delusions, hallucinations, catatonic behavior, etc.)
-negative symptoms: (normal reactions that are lacking in those with schizophrenia) flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality

schizophrenia

129

featuring disorganized speech, behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect

disorganized schizophrenia

130

featuring catatonia (immobile or unresponsive stupor)

catatonic schizophrenia

131

featuring delusions, most often persecutory or grandiose types

paranoid schizophrenia

132

concurrent with major depression or manic depression

schizoaffective disorder

133

ECT

-electroconvulsive therapy
-electrical shock therapy applied to the brain to induce convulsions; used to treat severely depressed patients

134

use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat season affective disorder

light therapy

135

treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques

psychotherapy

136

treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior

behavioral therapy

137

treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking

cognitive therapy