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What is forwarding?

Forwarding involves the transfer of data from an incoming link to an outgoing link with a single router


What is routing?

Routing involves all of the network's routers who's collective interactions via routing determine the paths that packets take.


What is a forwarding table?

Every router has a forwarding table which it uses to look up one of the header values of each arriving packet in its table. The value stored in this table indicates the outgoing link that the packet should be sent to.


What is the network service model?

The network service model defines the characteristics of end-end transport of packets between systems


What is best-effort service?

Best-effort service is the only service offered by the Internet. In best effort service no packets are guaranteed to arrive in order, within a certain time frame, or at all.


What is ATM CBR service?

CBR stands for constant bit rate.Cells are carried across a network in such a way that all cells lost or delivered late are guaranteed to be less than a specified value/


What is ATM ABR service?

ABR stands for Available Bit Rate which guarantees that packets that do arrive arrive in order.


What are the four router components and what do they do?

Input ports:
In the input port is where the lookup in the forwarding table happens. Control packets are forwarded from an input port to the routing processor

Switching fabric:
The switching fabric connects the input port to the output port.

Output ports:
Transmits packets to the outgoing link by performing link layer and physical layer functions.

Routing processor:
Executes routing protocols, maintains routing tables, attaches link state information and computes the forwarding table


What is the operating time of the forwarding data plane vs the routing control plane?

the forwarding data plane operates in nanoseconds and the routing control plane only operates in milliseconds.


List and describe the key fields of the datagram/

Version number:
The version number of the IP protocol that should be used with this datagram.
Header length:
The length of the header in bytes
Type of service:
Indicates the type of service (ex real time vs non-real time)
Datagram length: Total datagram length
Identifier, flags, fragmentation offset: flags that have to do with IP fragmentation
Time to live; the number of routers a datagram may pass through before it is dropped.
Protocol: Only used at the final destination, this field indicates what protocol should be used at the transport layer
Header checksum: checks for bit errors
Source and Destination IP address: where the datagram came from and where its going
Options: allows the datagram header to be extended
Data: payload.


What is an MTU?

A maximum transmission unit. It dictates the maximum amount of data that a link-layer frame can transmit


How does a router deal with fragmentation?

It doesn't. A router will break a datagram into smaller outgoing pieces but will not reassemble one. Instead it is up to the destination end system to reassemble the fragments.


How does an end system reassemble fragments?

The end systems uses information in the datagram header to identify datagrams that are fragments by looking at the identification numbers, it identifies the last datagram fragment by checking if the flag bit is set to zero, and it identifies which datagram is which by looking at the fragmentation offset of each datagram.

The datagram will be passed to the transport layer only after it has been completely reassembled. If it remains incomplete, then the datagram will be discarded.


What is the Jolt2 attack?

A DoS attack where the attacker sends a flood of datagrams with the flag bit sent to 1 and the host is unable to put together the series of malicious datagrams


How big is an IP address and in what notation are they typically written?

32bits long. Dotted decimal notation, each byte is written in decimal form and separated by a period from other bytes.


What is a subnet mask?

The leftmost 24 bits of the IP address define the subnet address.


How can we define a subnet within an interconnected system of routers and hosts

To determine the subnets, detach each interface from its host or router, creating islands of isolated networks, with interfaces terminating the end points of the isolated networks. Each of these isolated networks is called a subnet


What is the name of the Internet's address assignment strategy?

Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)


What is the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol?

DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address automatically by allocating an available IP address from its organizations pool. DHCP is referred to as a plug-and-play protocol


Describe the interaction between DHCP server and host

1-Client sends a discover message to
2-One or more DHCP servers respond over with a proposed IP address, an IP address lifetime, and the network mask
3- The new client chooses a server offer and responds to the offer with an echoing request message
4- The server responds with a DHCP Ack


In simple terms, what is NAT?

Network Address Translation. A NAT router will modify the IP address of all hosts in a small network (such as a home network) so that a single IP address for that network is presented to the rest of the world. It will direct incoming messages using its own translation table.


What does ICMP stand for?

Internet Control Message Protocol?


What is ICMP?

ICMP is mostly error messaging. Architecturally is lies just above IP so its messages are carried in IP datagrams. An IP message consists of a type and a code as well as an identifier of the problem causing datagram


What is the new IPv6 Datagram Format?

A new 128 bit address.
A streamlined 40-byte header
No fragmentation done by routers.