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Flashcards in Neuro 1 Deck (157):
1

What are the contents of the superifical posterior triangle

Deep posterior triangle?

Superifical:
Erbs point
Traps and SCM
External jugular vein
Cervicodorsal vein

Deep
Spinal nerves: Accessory, dorsal scapular, nerve to levator scapularis
Splenius capitis
scalenes
brachial plexus

2

What is in Zone 1?

Zone 2?

1
Thoracic duct
cupola of lung
trachea
esophagus
carotid, vertebral and subclavian
parathyroid, thyroid

2
Internal/external carotid
viscera (larynx, pharynx, )
recurrent laryngeal n
tracchea

3

What is the division between nasopharynx and oropharynx/

Oral cavity and oropharynx?

Pharyngeal isthmus
Faucial isthmus

4

What tonsils are in the nasopharynx?

pharyngeal tonsils

5

What are teh lateral boundaries of the oropharynx?

What tonsils are here?

Palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches

Palatine tonsils

6

What are the 3 elevator muscles of the pharynx?

What are innervations?

Palatopharyngeus
Stylopharyngeus
Salpingopharyngeus

Palato/Salpingo --> Vagus
Stylopharyngeus --> glossopharyngeal n.

7

What cranial nerves are afffected by dysarthria

XII & IX

8

Pt presents with syncope, double vision, numbness/weakness in handsfeet, slurred speech and N/V. You have the nurse check the BP in both arms. why?

Trying to distinguish from
Posterior brain claudication due to vertebral artery occulsion
and subclavian steal syndrome.

SS has different BPs

9

What does the parotid duct run with?

Buccal nerve (of sensory branch of V3) and the transverse facial artery from the superficial temporal artery

10

What is the danger area of scalp? Why?

4th layer of scalp.
Pus spreads to emissary veins into intracranial sinuses

11

What level does the vertebral artery and cricoid cartliage enter transverse foramen?

C6

12

What are Erb's point nerves?

Lesser occipital, greater auricular, transverse cervical, supraclaviculars.
Also brachial plexus C5-C6 = waiters tip hand

13

What is the relationship of the facial artery and vein to the submandibular gland?

Facial a/v go around it.

14

What is the inferio border of the root of neck? what does it contain?

C6

Cupola of lung, thoracic duct, eso, trachea

15

What happens if you have a lesion of
IX?
X?
XI?
XII?

IX = loss of gag, loss of posterior 1/3 tongue, pharynx sensation
X = dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea, loss of gag/cough reflex
XI = can't shrug or rotate head
XII = tongue deviates toward affected side

16

Gag reflex?
Cough reflex?

Gag: IX to X
Cough: superior laryngeal nerve to inferior laryngeal nerve

17

What can cause Vernet's syndrome?
What nerves?

Basilar skull fracture, base of skull fracture, battles sign, CN IX, X, XI

18

What can cause Collet Sicard syndrome?

Retroparotid space penetrating injury
IX X XI XII

19

A pt presents with ptosis (anisocria), pupillary constriction, anhidrosis. He has a PMH of strokes, and a tumor in his upper right lung. He complains of migraines and cluster headache.

Horners
loss of sympathetic innervation due to partial or complete transection of spinal cord

20

Which carotid is more prone to aneurysm

internal because higher pressure.
Hypoperufsion: blood shunted from anterior to posterior

21

What is Central cord syndrome?

Necorsis of central spinal cord due to anterior spinal arery sucking. branches off vertebral artery

22

How do plastic surgeons do face lifts?

They lift the SMAS - subqutaneous muscluoaponeurotic system, to put the lift in it

23

What is the fxn and innervation of
mylohyoid
geniohyoid
anterior belly of digastric
Posterior belly of digastric?
Stylohyoid

Mylohyoid: Depress mandible,
N. to mylohyoid from V3
Geniohyoid: C1 via hypogossal nerve

A. Digastric
Nerve to mylohyoid from V3

P. Digastric: Facial nerve

Stylohyoid - facial VII

24

Facial nerve functions and nuclei?

Glossopharyngeal fxns and nuclei?

Vagus?

Facial expression, eye lid closing - motor nucleus
Stapes - Pontine Principal Sensory Nucleus
Salivation/Lacrimation - Superior salivatory nucleus
Anterior 2/3 tongue - Nucleus solitarius

Glossopharyngeal
- Carotid: tractus solitarius middle
- P 1/3 tongue sensation: spinal trigem
- P 1/3 tongue taste: Tractus solitarius rostral
- Stylopharyngeus: Nucleus ambiguus
- Parotid gland: inferior salivatory nucleus

Vagus
- aortic arch: Tractus solitarius
- Meninges senesation: Trigeminal spinal
- Larynx: Nucleus ambiguus
- Gi: dorsal vagal motor

25

Name the foramina of the nerves

Cribiform plate: I
Optic canal: II
Superior Orbital fissure: III, IV, V1, VI
Foramen Rotundum: V2
Foramen Ovale: V3
Foramen spinosum: MMA
Internal Auditory Meatus: VII, VIII
Jugular Foramen: IX X XI, jugular
Hypoglossal: XII

26

Problems with Vagus

Porblems with facial

Uvula deviates away,
Loss of gag
Loss of voice
Increased HR

COrneal refelx,
bells palsy
Stapedius paralysis

27

What are the arches that bind the oropharynx?

glossopharyngeal and palatopharyngeal

28

In what stage do pharyngeal Constrictors contract?
Suprahyoid muscles?
When does the vagus stimulate the levator veli palatini?

3
2
Stage 2

29

If you want to numb the internal laryngeal n, where do you stick needle?

Posterior recess of pharynx

30

Position of larynx in neonate?
adult?

Neonate: C2-C3
Adult: C4-C5

31

What is inferior to vocal folds?
A. Laryngeal vestibule
B. Infraglottic cavity
C. Laryngal ventricle

C

Laryngeal Vestibule: Between laryngeal inlet and vestibular folds,

Laryngeal vntricle: recess from middle part of laryngeal cavity between vestibular folds and vocal folds

32

What is the largyngeal aditus?

Opening from pharynx to larynx

33

What are the importnat branches of V3?

Nerve to myelohyoid
Buccal
Auriculotemporal
Lingual
Inferior Alveolar

34

What innervates teh cricothyroid muscle?

extnerla branch of superior laryngeal

35

A pt presents with dysarthria. What nerves?

XII & IX, X
Facial and glossopharyngeal, vagus

36

What is the consequence s of inferior laryngeal nerve injury?
Superior laryngeal nerve?

No voice
Stuck closed, vocal fold cannot adduct to form voice

Monotonous voice.
Stuck open

37

What drains into the IJV?

Superior ophthalmic and sphenoparietal sinus-->
Cavernous sinuses --> Superior and inferior petrosal sinuses.
Inferior petrosal --> IJV;
Superior petrosal --> Sigmoid sinuses

COnfluence --> Transverse sinus --> Sigmoid sinus

38

Through what structure does CSF drain?

Arachnoid granulations

39

What is the importance of pterygoid plexus?

Can drain maxillary v or facial.
Pumps venous blood when you move your mouth or yawn

40

What are the 4 branches of the superficial temporal artery?

ANterior auricular
Middle temporal
Frontal a.
Parietal a

41

Name the lymph of the face and scalp?

Deep cervical

42

Pt presents with syncope and double vision, numbness/weaknesses in hands feet, slurred speech, N/V

Vertebral basilar insufficiency
due to vetebral artery occlusion

43

What is the innervation of the parotid gland?

Greater auricular nerve from C2-C3
Parasympathetic from otic ganglion, tympanic n, lesser petrosal nerve, auriculotemporal V3 nerve, and external carotid sympathetic.

44

Danger area of scalp?

4th - loose areolar scalp;
infection in subaponeurotic space spreads to emissary veins and collects pus

45

How to check for Bell's?

Smile, raise eyebrows, squeez eyes shut, open mouth, puff out cheeks

46

What happens in an UMN injury?
LMN?

Stroke, contralateral lower half of faces loses innervation

LMN: Bell's palsy, full half face.

47

A pt presents with excruiciating attacks of pain on their face. Dx?

Trigeminal neuralgia
tic douleurex

48

What are the steps in nostril syntehsis?

Frontonasal prominence --> nasal placodes --> Nasal pits --> Nostrils and cavities

49

How does the nasal septum form?
Philtrum?

Septum: medial nasal prominence fuse with palatine prominence
Philtrum: maxillary prominences grow over the frontonasal prominence.

50

How does the primary palate form?
SEcondary palate?

Primary:
- Fusion of medial nasal prominences
- Premaxillary part of maxilla that contains incisors.
Secondary:
- palatine shelves grow out, lateral to tongue. Tongue drops = together now.
- Bone extends from maxilla & palatine

51

How do you get cleft palate?
Cleft lip?

Failure of palatine shelves to fuse
- failure of maxillary and medial nasal procesess to fuse

52

The sphenoid bone is described as what type of cranium?
Calvaria?
Larynx?
Ethmoid?
Incus?
hyoid?
Zygomatic?

Sphenoid: cartilaginous neurocranium

membranous neurocranium

cartliaginous viscerocranium

cartilaginous neruocranium

cartilaginous viscerocranium

same

cartilaginous neurocarnium

53

What develops via endochondral ossification?
intramembranous ossification?

Endochondral = cartilagionous

Intramembranous = membranous

54

A pt is born with orbital and frontal bones misaligned. Dx and mx?

Trigonocephaly,

frontal suture (Metopic), closed too soon.

55

A pt is born with a very tall head. Dx?

Brachycephaly:
Coronal suture messed up
30% of cases

56

A pt is born with asymmetrical forehead

Scaphocephaly
Sagittal suture'50% of cases

57

What is the boundary between ectoderm and endderm in teh palate?

Palatine tonsils

58

Ectodermal derviatives of face?

Endodermal derivatives of face?

Ectoderm: epithelium of lips, gums, enamel, oral portion of tongue

Endoderm:
Epithelium of pharyngeal portion of tonuge, palatine fossa and below.

59

Describe tongue development?

1st PA --> Median lingual swlling --> anterior 2/3 tongue

2nd

3rd PA --> overgrow 2nd arch ---> posterior 1/3 tongue.

4th PA --> Epiglottis and stuff.

60

What are the muscles of the tongue derviced from?
What are the muscles of the tongue?

Occipital myoblasts from paraxial mesoderm

XII:
hyoglossus, genioglossus, styloglossus
X:
Palatoglossus

61

Innervation of tongue?

Anterior 2/3 tongue
Sensation = Trigeminal V3, lingual branch

Motor= XII, hypoglossus

Taste = VII, facial

posterior 1/3
Sensation and Taste:
glossopharyngeal

Motor:
hypoglossal

Way back:
sensation = vagus

62

A patient presents with her child. They are having difficulties breast feeding. the tongue looks normal, but tied..
Dx?
What if it was bifid?

ANkyloglossia

Glossoschisiss

63

Wha tis the germ layer for dental sac and what does it do?

Mesenchyme --> PDL, cementum

64

If the chorda tympani was lesioned, what would be affected?

Where doe the chorda tympani join the lingual nerve?

What happens if only the lingual nerve is lesioned?

loss of taste from anterior 2/3s tongue and decrease in saliva production bc asubmandibular and sublingual glands would not be innervated.

In the infratemporal fossa

Loss of senseation from A2/3 tongue

65

Tumor in jugular foramen, what nerves are located here? What sx would be present?

IX, X, XI = losso f gag reflex

66

A uvula deviates to the right, what nerve is affected? Why does this happen?

left vagus

Levator veli palatini pulls it to the other side.

67

You test to see if a pt is brain dead by cotton swabbing their eye ball. The eyelid twitches. (Blink Reflex) What nerves are being tested?

Then you shine light in their eye, causing a corneal reflex. What nerve?

Blink:
Afferent: V1 Nasociliary
Efferent VII: Zygomatic

Corneal:
Sensory: Optic
Motor: Oculomotor does constriction

BILATERAL BC of posterior commissure

68

A pt is can't go to the Foo Fighters concerts anymore bc he is insensitive to loud noises. WHat nerve?

Facial nerve

69

A thyroidectomy.
Pt presents with hoarseness?
Monotone?

Hoarseness: Recurrent Laryngeal

Monotone: inferior laryngeal nerve - (includes recurrent laryngeal)

70

Pt presents with constricted right pupil that does not respond to light. Everything else, including his left eye, is normal. Where is the lesion?

Constricted = cannot dilate.
Dilation occurs in sympathetic response.
Superior Cervical ganglion is affected.

71

What are the functions of the chorda tympani?

Deep petrosal?

Lesser petrosal?

Greater Petrosal?

Chorda Tympani: Submandibular and sublingual glands, taste to A2/3 tongue (via facial)

deep petrosal: Sympathetic to blod vessels and mucous glands

Lesser petrosal: Parasympathetic to parotid

Greater petrosal: parasympathetic to lacrimal gland

72

A patient presents with right corner of mouth dropping, unable toclose his right eye and food collection in his irght oral vestibule, history reveals a recent otitis media surgery. What nerve?

Facial

73

You can get loss of taste from which 2 nerves?

Facial via chorda tympani (anterior)
glossopharyngeal (posterior)

74

What nerve runs along the intenral carotid artery near the cavernous sinus?

Abducens nerve

75

What muscles can protrude the side of jaw?

Medial, Lateral pterygoid and masseter

Retrude: Temporalis

76

If a pt is experiencing watery saliva, what nervous system is stimulating that?

Mucusy saliva?

Parasympathetic

Sympathetic

77

What are the muscles of the tongue and how are the innervated?

Most by hypoglossal:
- hyoglossus
- genioglossus
- myoglossus

VAGUS innervation
Palatoglossus

78

Corneal reflex?
Dilation reflex?

Corneal: BLink
Nasociliary V1 afferent --> zyogmatic branch VII efferent

Dilation: Constrict
Sensory afferent: optic I
Motor: Oculomotor III
Edinger westphal nucleus*

79

Pt presents with diplopia, decreased vision, acuity, and loss of pupillary reflex, saying they were hit by a baseball. you notice the eye also has an upward gaze. Dx? Mx?

blow out fracture

Fracture of lower = entrapment of inferior rectus

fracture of higher = superior rectal and superior rbital, so lower gaze. Orbital plate broken

80

A pt presents with CSF rhinorrhea, nasal disfigurement, and a periorbital edema after an MVA. Dx?

Type 2 LeForte fractrue

81

Tongue development?

Arches 1& 2 form anterior 2/3. Senesation from V3, taste CN VII

3rd and 4th from posterior 1/3

82

How do you tell from an oculomotor nerve lesion from Horners?

if the ptosis corrects itself by looking up

83

Which cranial nerve is involved in the elevation of pharynx/larynx?

IX bc stylopharyngeous is the only elevator of pharynx/larynx

but also Palatopharyngeus muscle and salpingopharyngeuous muscle by the Vagus.

84

What muscle groups does the oculomotor innervate?

Dilators of pupil (Sphincter pupillae), eyelid (levator palpebrae), extraocular m

85

What muscle retracts and depresses the tongue?

Hyoglossus, hypoglossal XII

86

A pt may develop venous sinus thrombosis if they have what pre-existing condition?

Hypercoagulability

87

A pt has loss of taste and baroreceptor reflex after damage to a brain stem nucleus, which fibers send stuff back to nucleus?

VII, IX, X

tractus solitarius

88

What goes back to the nucleus ambiguus?

IX, X, XI,

9 11 was an inside job!

89

AFter a tonsillectomy, a girl gets ear pain, nerve?

glossopharyngeal bc gloospharyngeal does sensation of pharynx, auditory tube.

90

What tonsil is next to the pharyngotympanic tube?

What embryologically does this tube come from?

The pharyngeal tonsil

First pharyngeal pouch / tubotympanic recesss

91

What are the palatine tonsils supplied by?

Tonsillar branch of facial

92

Inner surface of tympanic membrane innervation?

Outer?

Glossopharyngeal

Outer: V, VII, X ; V3 mostly

93

Accomodation refelx?

triad of accomodation,
nerve?
when?

When you're trying to look at something closeup

- Cnvergence of gaze
- pupillary constriction
- thicken lens

Oculomotor
happens when eye constricts trying to focus on a near object

94

WHat are you at risk for in a cricothyroidotomy?

pyramidal lobe or remnant of thyroglossal duct

95

What does the superior thyroid artery run with?
Inferior thyroid artery?

superior: external branch of SLN
inferior: Recurrent Laryngeal

96

Retropharyngeal space is between..?

buccopharyngeal and alar layer of prevertebral fascia

97

For the muscles of facial expression, what branch of facial artery do each of them get?

Frontalis - temporal n, raise eybrows

Orbicularis oculi - zygomatic, close eye

zygomaticus major - smile, zygomatic

orbicularis oris - pucket lips, buccal n

platysma - flaring of neck -cervical n

98

What innervates the tensor veli palatini?

V3

99

What is the hiatus semilunaris?

Where do your tears go if there's an excess?

opening for maxilary sinus in the middle nsasl concha
frontal drains here via frontal recess
Nasolacrimal = inferior nasal concha

100

Relationships of sphenoid sinus?

Superior = pituitary
Lateral - internal carotid, V1, cavernous sinus
Posterior = pons, basilar
inferior = nasopharynx

101

Relationship of maxillary

Superior = orbit, infraorbital neurovascular bundle
Inferior= teeth, paplatine
posterior = pterygopalatine fossa

102

What innervates the leavtor palpebrae superioris?
Superior tarsal?

III = complete ptosis
sympathetics

103

What is the lateral pelprebral ligament?

Attaches to zygomatic bone

104

What is traumatic optic neuropathy?

Intercanalicular portion of optic nerve ischemic from orbital fracture

105

How to anesethetize infraorbital area?

Go through upper gums

106

What is the periorbita?

Continuous with endosteal dura

107

Chief sensory nerve to orbit?

Nasociliary n, anterior posterior ethmoidal n, long ciliary n,

108

What nerves go to the palate?

All from V2
Greater palatine nerve: Gingivae, mucous embrane, glands of hard palate
Nasopalatine; mucous membran, anterior hard palate
Lesser palatine nerves: Soft palate

109

Which Parasympathetic pathway has 2 cranial nerves associated with it?

Lacrimal gland. Pterygopalatine ganglion

110

What type of epithelium does the labial, alveolar, ventral tongue, and soft palate have?

Which ones have keratinized?

Non keratinized Simple Stratified squamous

dorsal tongue, hard palate, gingiva.

111

What innervates Tensor tympani?
Stapedius?

V2 or V3

VII

Think, Bose TOO loud. V2 and VII
[V20, disconnected]

112

What is the crista ampullaris?

Organ of rotation. Located at bottom of each semicircular canal
Also fxns as angular acceleration and deceleration

113

Path of sound waves?

ossicles --> round window --> scala vestibli --> organ of corti in scala media --> scala tympani --> round window --> E tube

higher frequency, closer to round window

114

A pt presents with recurrent attacks of tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo, feeling of rpesur ein ear and sensitivity to noise. Dx? Cx? Mx?

Sx: Meniere
Cx: Ballooning of cochlear duct, utricle and saccule
Mx: Excess endolymph from overproduction or blockage of endlymph

115

Pt presents with Loss of senseation of posterior tongue, paralysis of vocal cords, and ipsilateral trap/SCM weakness. Dx?
What if they also had trouble protruding their tongue?

Vernet's. IX, X, XI

Collet Sicard. Ix, X, XI, XII

116

You will have loss of corneal reflex if which CN's are injured?
Gag reflex?

Trigeminal
Facial

Gag:
IX & X

117

Insertion and Origin of stapedius? Innervation?

Posterior wall to posterior crura of stapes?
Vagus

118

First arch Cartilage, muscles, and nerves

Cartliage:
Mandible, Maxilla, ZygoMatic, Meckel cartilage, Malleus, Incus SphenoMandibular lig

Muscles:
Mastication; Masseter, Medial and pterygoids, Mylohyoid A digastric,

Nerves: V2, V3

119

2nd arch Cartilage, muscles, nerves

CN VII
Stapes, Styloid, leSSer horn, Stylohyoid lig

Stapedius, Stylohyoid, PlatySma posterior belly of digastric

120

3rd arch cartilage, muscles, nerves?

CN IX
Stylopharyngeus muscle
greater horn of hyoid

121

4th arch cartilage, muscle, nerves,

4 - X superior laryngeal
6 - X recurrent laryngeal

Arytenoids, Cuneiform, Corniculate, Cricoid, Thyroid

Pharyngeal constrictors & cricothyroid

6th Intrinsic muscles except cricothyroid.

122

What do the 1 - 4th clefts differentiate into?

1st cleft = external auditory meatus.
2nd cleft = persistent cervical sinus

123

A pt presents with an immobile growth on their anterior SCM. dx?
What if it was mobile?

persistent cleft cyst

thyroglossal duct cyst

124

1st branchial pouch?

Middle ear, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells & Endoderm of ear

125

2nd branchial pouch?

palatine tonsils epithelial lining

126

3rd branchial pouch?

Dorsal wings: Inferior parathyroids
Ventral wings: Thymus

127

4th branchial pouch

Dorsal: Superior paraythyroids
Ventral: Ultimobranchial and parafollicular cells

128

pt presents with hypocalcemia and a T cell deficiency. Dx

Chromosome 22q11 deletion - aberrant development of 3rd and 4th pouches

129

Neurocranium structures are derived from what germ layer?
Viscerocranium?

Paraxial somatic mesoderm

Viscerocranium: NCC

130

What does the hypopharyngeal eminence become?

Body of hyoid

131

What type of epitheluim is the conjunctiva?

Strat columnar

132

what does the organ of corti contain?

Vestibular appartus?

Tectorial membrane for stereocilia
Basilar membrane that vibrates, it's what it's sitting on

Vestibular:
SEmicirular:- endolymph, cupola,
Utricle and saccule: otolithic membrane

133

what causes retinitis pigmentosa?

What molecules are ancillary inhibitors?

periferin & mutation in RPE65

Arrestin
Rhodopsin kinase

134

What's the glutamate lik ein the dark?

high glutamate to prevent transduction repolarizaiton bc no light = no signal

135

What 2 molecules are for regneration of cis retinol?

RPE 65
LRAT

136

Describe genetics of color blindness

red and greena re on same X chromosome = X linked

137

pt presents with night blindness, xerophthalmia, and bitot's spots. Dx.
What about Excess Vit A?

Vit A deficiency

liver toxicity and joint pain/ Fetal cleft palates

138

Macular degeneration is associated with what mutation?

ABCA4
VEGF mediates by inducing angiogenesis and increasing infalmmation and vascular permeability

139

Jaw dislocation is painful bc of what nerves?

Auriculotemporal
deep temporal n
masseteric n

140

What are 5 main head muscles that the vagus motorizes?

- Palatoglossus
- Stapedius
- levator veli palatini
- Salpingopharyngeus
- Palatopharyngeus

141

Maxillary sinus artery and nerve
Sphenoid sinus artery and nerve?

Superior alveolar n/a

Posterior ethmoid n/a

142

What type of epithelium do our tonsils have?
Palatine
Pharyngeal
Lingual

Palatine: tonsillar crypts
Pharyngeal: Pseudostratified epithelium
Lingual tonsil: Stratified Squamous

143

What does LRAT do?

RPE65?

LRAT esterifies all trans-retinol to all trans retinyl in RPE

RPE 65 converts all trans retinyl to 11 cis retinol

144

What nerve runs in hte pirifirom recess

Internal laryngeal

145

3. In regards to the skin layers, which layer contains keratin precursors?

A. Keratin layer - flat cells that lack nuclei, full of keratin
B. Basal layer - layer of cells undergoing mitosis
C. Granular layer - contains keratohyaline granules (keratin precursors)
D. Prickle cell layer - lose ability for mitosis

146

2. A biopsy report for a tonsil describes it as having stratified squamous epithelium
with deep invaginations and crypts. It has a partial capsule made of dense
connective tissue and germinal centers are seen. What is the most likely
structure?

A. Palatine tonsil
B. Pharyngeal tonsil - covered with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium,
lacks crypts
C. Adenoid tonsil - another name for pharyngeal tonsil
D. Lingual tonsil - similar to palatine tonsils but has no distinct capsule

147

Pt presents with micrognathia, glossoptosis, cleft palate, and airway obstruction

Pierre Robin Sequence

148

Pt presents mandibular hyopplasia, facial abnormalities.

Treacher Collins

149

What arch forms the anterior ligament of malleus and sphenomandibular ligament? What specifically?

Does the mandible come from dorsal or ventral parts of primordium?

1st arch Perichondrium --> ligaments.

Ventral

150

What arch forms the stylohyoid ligament?

2nd arch perichondrium

151

What muscles are General somatic efferent, and not derived from PA?

PA = 6, 7, 9 ,10
so
they come from myotomes

3, 4, 6, 12.
Eye muscles and tongue muscles

152

How do you knwo it's an acute cancer?

if it hasn't hit the Jugulofacial and jugulosubclavian jxns

153

What is the sympathetic pathway of sphincter eye stuff?

V1 --> nasociliary --> long ciliary --> sphincter eye

154

Pt can't raise eyebrows?
Can't close eyes?
SMile?
PUcker lips?
flaring of neck?

temporal nerve of facial

zygomatic
zygomatic
bucal
cervical

155

Nose fracture?

Vomer
Ethmoid
Septal cartilage

156

Endosteal dura = meningeal dura
what does this cause?

Papillaedema bc CSF stays in there

157

Dilation affernt and efferent

Afferent:
sympathetic T1