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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (28):
1

Deficiency in what leads to recurrent Neisseria

MAC
makes pore in bacterial membrane

2

Treatment of N. Meningitidis

IV ceftriaxone

3

Absence of T cells leads to?

Fungal and Viral infections
ie: Digeorge syndrome (no thymus & parathyroid)

4

Chronic Granulomatous disease what kind of organisms susceptible to

gram positive like staphylcocci
LACK NADPH oxidase

5

NF type I
what embryological develop the cutaneous neurofibromas?

Benign nerve sheath neoplasm predominantly Schwann cells --> from neural crest

6

How is axillary nerve most often injured and how does it present

shoulder trauma (anterior dislocation, humeral fracture)
presents sensory loss over lateral shoulder and weakness on shoulder abduction (due to denervation of deltoid muscle)

7

What is acute dystonic reaction (spasmodic torticollis)

a type of extrapyramidal symptom (EPS) most likely due to recent initation of antipsychotic medication
can develop abruptly anytime between 4hrs-4days after antipsychotic medication
= sudden involuntary contraction of major muscle group etc.
D2 ANTAGONISM IN NIGROSTRIATAL PATHWAY

8

NF1 inheritance

AD mutation on NF1 gene located on chromosome 17
Cafe au lait spots
multiple neurfibromas
Lisch nodules

9

What molecular mechanisms causes huntington's

hypoacetylated histones bind tightly to DNA and prevent transcription of genes

10

What is polypeptide precursor to Beta endorphins

Beta endorphin is derived from POMC
also produces ACTH and MSH

11

Wernicke encephalopathy triad

confusion, ataxia, opthalmoplegia
damage to mamillary bodies

12

What can exacerbate and precipitate Wernicke encephalopathy

Glucose infusion
b/c thiamine is necessary for enzymes in glucose metabolism
so always give thiamine with it

13

What vitamin overdose can result in intracranial hypertension, skin changes, and hepatosplenomegaly

Vitamin A

14

Decerebrate posturing

Damage to brainstem at/below level of red nucleus (e.g. midbrain tegmentum/pons) results in decerebrate (extensor) posturing due to loss of descending excitation to upper limb flexors (via the rubrospinal tract) and predominance of the extensors (controlled by the vestibulospinal tract)

15

Decorticate posturing

Damage above red nucleus (e.g cerebral hemispheres) results in decorticate (flexor) posturing due to loss of descending inhbition of red nucleus and subsequent hyperactivity of upper-extremity flexor muscles

16

What does arteriovenous concentration gradient reflects in inhaled anesthetics?

Reflects overall tissue solubility of an anesthetic

High tissue solubility characterized by large arteriovenous concentration gradient and slower onset of action

17

Where is neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage usually occur?

in fragile germinal matrix and increases in frequency with decreasing age and birth weight

can lead to long-term neurodevelopmental impairment

18

What CN inervates stapedius muscle and what would paralysis of stapedius muscle result in

inervated by stapedius nerve (branch of facial nerve)
results in hyperacusis (increased sensitivity to sound)

19

What is afferent and efferent limb of the light reflex pathway

afferent= optic nerve
efferent= parasympathetic fibers of oculomotor nerve

20

Which nerve injury results in a positive trendelenburg sign

superior gluteal nerve injury results in weakness & paralysis of gluteus medius, minimus, tensor fasciae latae muscle
these muscle stabilize pelvis and abduct the thigh

21

What are nerve is affected in baseball pitcher with right arm weakness and numbness. diminished strength on elbow flexion and absent bicepts reflex. sensory loss on lateral forearm.

Musculocutaneous innervates major forearm flexors (eg biceps bachii, bachialis) and coracobrachialis (flexes and adducts arm
Derived from upper trunk of brachial plxus (C5-C7) and can be injured by trauma or strenous upper extremity exercise

22

What is histopathologic finding of HIV-associated dementia in AIDS patients with progrssive cognitive decline

microglial nodules, groups of activated macrophages/microglial cells around area of necrosis that fuse to form multinucleated giant cells

23

What does irreversible injury in neuron look like?

"red neuron"
evidence 12-24 hours
shrinkage of cellboxy, eosinophila of cytoplasm, pkynosis of nucleus and loss of Nissl substance

24

MOA of phenytoin, cabamazepine, and valproic acid

inhibits neuronal high frequency firing by reducing ability of sodium channels to recover from inactivation

25

MOA of ethosuximide

block T type calcium channels in thalamic neurons causing hyperpolarization and is approved for treatment of absence seizures

26

What's Guillain-Barre syndrome

acute demyelinating peripheral neuropathy
segmental demyelination of peripheral nerves and an endoneural inflammatory infiltrate seen on light microscopy

27

Teratology of Fallot

PROV
PULMONARY STENOSIS
Right Ventricular hypertrophy
Overriding aorta
VSD

or IHOP
Intraventricular septal defect
Hypertrophy of RV
Overriding aorta
Pulmonary stenosis

28

X-linked recessive disorders

Obviously Female Will Often Give Her Boys Her x-Linked Disorders

Ornithine Transcarbamylase deficiency
Fabry Disease
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
Ocular Albinism
G6PD deficiency
Hunter Syndrome
Bruton agammaglobinemia
Hemophilia A & B
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Duchenne (and Becker) Muscular Dystrophy