Neuro Flashcards Preview

Patho 3 > Neuro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro Deck (39):
1

glia

a type of neuron. They make oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and macroglia

2

Gliosis

– inflammation in the brain (fibrosis)
-most important indicator of CNS injury

3

cerebral edema

can be focal (abscess/neoplasms) or generalized (hepatic encepholopathy, Na solution)
MCC of someone going into a coma

4

MC neural tube defect in newborns

spina bifida

5

myelomeningocele

extension of meninges and CNS tissue
-check alpha feto protein levels in pregnant pts

6

Arnold Chiari Malformation

There is a small posterior cranial fossa, with a misshaped midline cerebellum and downward extension of the vermis through the foramen magnum....leads to hydrocephalus

7

Dandy Walker malformation

enlargement of 4th ventricle, cyst forms, leads to hydrocephalus

8

polymicrogyria

Too many gyri leads to abnormally developed brain
unilateral-mild seizures to no symptoms
bilateral-seizures, dev delays, eyes misaligned

9

Holoprosencephaly

– the brain does not have division (brain without separation)
one eye fetus

10

Agenesis of Corpus Callosum

– two separate brains with no connection
usually presents with epilepsy in first week of life

11

congenital hydrocephalus

wet
wobbly
wacky
4th ventricle is blocked
MC due to TORCH

12

concussions

-not associated with anatomic changes in brain
-it is reversible
-no functional loss

13

contusion

-bruise in brain

14

coup vs countercoup

injury at site of impact
injury at site opposite of impact

15

epidural hematoma

-middle meningeal artery most commonly affected when skull is injured
-fractured temporal bone can cause this injury
-it will press the brain downwards, towards the foramen magnum and it will herniate
-seen post trauma, can die two hours later

16

subdural hematoma

This is a problem with the vein
This is BENEATH the dura
Pt slips, falls, hits his head – complains of headache that is getting worse
common in elderly

17

AV malformation

– artery and vein are together (artery continues into vein)
-Veins can’t handle the type of pressure that arteries can handle – everything is going to explode BOOM rupture
-at risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage

18

berry aneurysm

– outpouching of artery, if it continues to out-pouch and ruptures that will cause bleeding
-seen in polycystic kidney disease

19

3 categories of cerebral vascular disease

Hypoxia > ischemia > infarction
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
Ruptured Berry Aneurysm and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

20

Two types on infarcts

Hemorrhagic (red)
Non-Hemorrhagic (pale)-thrombus formation

21

intraparenchymal hemorrhage

MCC is HTN, rupture occurs in basal ganglia

22

subarachnoid hemorrhage

thunderclap headache "worst of life", straight to CT

23

subfalcine hernia
transtentorial
cerebellar tonsil

-can compress the anterior circulating artery
-PCA
-presses on medulla, affects breathing

24

acute meningitis

neonates-E. Coli (gram neg) Group B strep (gram pos) so treat for both gram pos and neg
infants/children-H influenza
young adults-neisseria, most dangerous form, presents with petecchial rash
elderly-S Pne or listeria monocytogenes

25

meningitis work up

CT scan first to rule out abscess or mass so you don't herniate the brain when you do the spinal tap
viral-normal glucose, lymphocytes
bacterial-low glucose, neutrophils

26

MCC of brain abscess

staph or strep
If they do surgery to remove abscess and give ABX, mortality is less than 10%. If they don’t they will eventually herniate and die

27

Viral meningitis and encephalitis difference

ALTERED MENTAL STATUS IN ENCEPHALITIS

28

MCC viral encephalitis and others

HSV 1
herpes zoster
CMV
Poliomyelitis
Rabies
HIV

29

Multiple sclerosis

-affects white matter of brain destroying myelin
-leads to fatigue, slow movements
-decreased oligodendrocytes

30

Alzheimer's disease

-neurofibrillary tangles
- plaques
-gold standard is autopsy

31

Parkinson

affects basal ganglia and brainstem, movement disorder
– reduction in voluntary movement AND abundance of involuntary movement

32

Parkinson has a depletion in....

dopamine....too much Ach causing tremors

33

Huntington Disease

autsomal dominant, progressive movement disorders with dementia
after dx pt has about 15 years

34

MC benign brain tumor

meningioma

35

astrocytoma

80% of adult tumors, always infiltrate brain, looks like part of the brain on CT, may not be deadly

36

glioblastoma multiforme

grade 4 astrocytoma aka butterfly tumor
affects both hemispheres
worst tumor

37

oligodendroglioma

can be seen on CT easily bc of calcifications

38

medulloblastoma

This is bad because it’s really deep in
Very radiosensitive = that’s the good part = radiation therapy

39

schwanoma

benign tumor, presents with tinnitus