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Flashcards in Neuro A&P High Yield Deck (123):
1

T/F: Neurons divide in adulthood

False... they are permanent cells

2

What does Nissle stain identify?

RER of neurons

3

Does wallerian degereation occur in the CNS, PNS or both?

PNS... occurs distal to the site of axonal injury

4

What cells are the support cells if the nervous system?

Astrocytes

BBB, physical support, K+ metabolism, remove excess NTs, glycogen fuel reserve

5

Phagocytic scavenger cells of the CNS?

Microglia

6

Myelin in CNS vs Myelin in PNS?

CNS= oligodendrocytes

PNS= schwann cells

7

Which cells promote axonal regeneration on the PNS after injury?

Schwann cells

8

Which disease are acoustic neuromas associated with?

Neurofobromatosis type 2

9

T/F: one oligodendrocyte per neuron

False...One oligodendrocye can myelinate multiple neurons

10

Free nerve endings (C and A delta) sense what?

Pain and temperature

11

Where are meissner crpuscles found?

hairless skin

12

Where are pacinian corpuscles found?

dep skin layers, ligmanets and joints

13

Where are merkel discs located?

finger tips and superficial skin

14

Where is NE synthesized?

Locus ceruleus (Pons)

15

Where is dopamine synthesized?

Substantia nigra and ventral tegumentum (midbrain)

16

Where is 5-HT synthesized?

Raphe nuclei ( pons, medulla, midbrain)

17

Where is ACh synthesized?

Basal nucleus of Meynert

18

Where is GABA synthesized?

Nucleus accumbins

19

What is the reward center? of the brain?

Nucleus accumbens and septal nucleus

20

What 3 structures form the BBB?

1- Tight junctions
2- Basement membrane
3- Astrocyte foot processes

21

What 3 structures form the BBB?

1- Tight junctions
2- Basement membrane
3- Astrocyte foot processes

22

Function of the lateral area of the hypothalamus?

Hunger generation

23

Function of the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus?

sateity

24

Function of the anterior hypothalamus?

Cooling (parasympathetic control)

25

Functions of the posterior hypothalamus?

Heating (sympathetic control)

26

Function of teh suprachiasmatic nucleus?

Circadian rhythm

27

What allows for extraocular movements during REM sleep?

PPRF (conjugate gaze center)

28

What substances decreased amount of REM sleep?

Alcohol, benzo, barbs and NE

29

EKG waveform of REM sleep?

Beta (same as awake)

30

At what stage of sleep does sleep walking night terrors, and bedwettng occur?

Non-REM stage 3

31

Name the 5 nuclei of the thalamus?

VPL- body sense
VPM- face sense
LGN- vision (CN II)
MGN- hearing
VL- Motor (basal ganglia and cerebellum)

32

"massive axonal demyelination in pontine white matter secondary to osmotic changed"

Osmotic demyelination syndrome (central pontine myelinolysis)

LOCKED IN SYNDROME

caused by correcting hyponatremia too quickly

33

What are the 2 inputs to the cerebellum?

1- contralateral cortex via meiddle cerebellar peduncle

2- psilateral proprioceptive information bvia interior cerebellar peduncle

34

What are the 2 inputs to the cerebellum?

1- contralateral cortex via meiddle cerebellar peduncle

2- psilateral proprioceptive information via interior cerebellar peduncle

35

What are the output nerves of the cerebellum?

Purkinje cells

36

What are the deep nuclei of the cerebellum? (4)

Dentate, Emboliform, Globose, Fastigial

37

What makes up the stiatum?

putamen and caudate

38

What makes up the lentiform?

Putamen and globus pallidus

39

"slow writhing snake like movements"

Athetosis

40

"sudden, jerky, purposeless movements"

Chorea

41

"sustained involuntary muscle contractions"

Dystonia

42

"high frequency tremor with sustained posture worsened with movement or when anxious"

Essential tremor

43

"Sudden, wild flailing of 1 arm with/ without ipsilateral leg"

Hemiballismus

44

What can cause hemiballsmus?

contralateral subthalamic nucleus damage (lacunar stroke)

45

"slow zigzag motion when pointing/ extending toward a target"

intention tremor

46

What causes intention tremor?

Cerebellar dysfunction

47

"uncontrolled movement of distal appendages, alleviated by intentional movement"

resting tremor...seen in parkinsons

48

What makes up Lewy bodies?

alpha synuclein (seen in parkingsons)

49

What chromosone is huntington's disease associated with?

Chromosome 4--> trinucleotide repeat disorder

50

Levels of ACh, DA and GABA in Huntington disease?

Increased DA

Decreased ACh

Decreased GABA

51

"inferior frontal gyrus of frontal lobe--> nonfluent apasia"

Brocha

52

"Superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe--> fluent aphasia"

Wernicke

53

"poor repitition but fluent speech, intact comprehension caused by damage to arcuate fasciculus"

Conduction aphasia

54

Areas damaged in global aphasia?

Broca, Wernicke and arcuate fasciculus

55

"nonfluent speeck, por comprehension, intact repitition"

Brocas area and Wernickes area only

56

Symptoms of bilateral lesion to the amygdala?

disinhibited behavior (Luver bucy syndrome)

57

Symptoms of frontal lobe lesion?

Disinhibition and deficits in orientatoin, concentration, judgement

Primitive reflexes may reemerge

58

What can cause hemispatial neglect syndrome?

Non-dominent parietal- temporal cortex lesion

59

Symptoms of damage to RAS in midbrain?

reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness

60

PPRF lesion?

eyes look AWAY from side of lesion

61

What is brain perfusion regulated by?

PCO2 levels

62

How are BP and ICP related to cerebral perfusion pressure?

CPP= MAP- ICP

CPP will decrease with a decrease in MAP or an increase in ICP

63

Which artery supplies Wernicke and Broca's areas?

MCA

64

What supplies the striatum and internal capsule?

Lentricilostriate arteries

65

What type of infarcts are associated with lentriculostriate arteries?

lacunar infarcts

66

What supplies the lateral coricospinal tract, medial lemniscis and cadal medulla?

Anterior spinal artery

67

What supplies the lateral coricospinal tract, medial lemniscis and cadal medulla?

Anterior spinal artery

68

What supplies the lateral medulla?

PICA

69

Which 2 arteries supply vestibular nuclei?

PICA and AICA

70

What supplies the occipital cortex and the visual cortex?

PCA

71

Which artery is asspcoated with locked in syndrome?

Basilar artery

72

P communicating lesion...CN III palsy symptom?

Eye is "down and out" with ptosis and mydriasis

73

What causes an epidural hematoma?

Rupture of middle meningial artery (branch of maxillary artery)

74

What is a symptom seen in epidural hematomas?

Transtentorial herniation and CN III palsy

75

Biconvex hyperdense blood collection?

Epidural hematoma

76

What causes a subdural hematoma?

Rupture of bridging veins--> slow venous bleeding

77

What leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage?

rupture of aneurysm or AV malformation

78

"worst headache of my life"

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

79

What causes intraparencymal hemorrhage?

Systemic HTN

80

Where do intraparencymal hemorrhages usually occur?

Basal ganglia and internal capsule

81

What type of imaging is best to see hemorrhage?

Noncontrast CT

82

Time since ischemic event in CNS:

12-48 hrs
24-72 hrs
3-5 days
1-2 weeks
>2 weeks

12-48 hrs: red neurons

24-72 hrs: necrosi and neutrophils

3-5 days: macrophages (microglia)

1-2 weeks: reactive gliosis and vascular proliferation

>2 weeks: glial scar

83

How quickk to TIAs resolve?

84

What is the function of ependymal cells?

Make CSF

85

3rd ventricle --> 4th ventricle

Aqueduct of Sylvius

86

What is the treatment for idiopathic intracranial hypertension?

weght loss, acetazolamide, topiramate

87

What causes communicating hydrocephalus?

decreased CSF absorption by arachnoid granules

88

What causes communicating hydrocephalus?

decreased CSF absorption by arachnoid granules

89

What spinal level are lumbar punctures completed at?

L3/L4 or L4/L5

Level of the cauda equina

90

In the dorsal column, what do the fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus transmit?

Presure, vibration, touch and proprioception

Gracilis= lower body

Cuneatus= upper body and head

91

What does the spinothalamc tract carry?

Ascending sensation

Lateral= pain and temp

Anterior= crude touch, pressure

92

Where is the 1st synapse in the dorsal colum?

cuneatus or graculis (medulla)

93

Where do the dorsal columns deccusate (cross over)?

medulla (then ascends contralaterally in medial lemniscus)

94

Where is the second synapse on the dorsal column?

VPL (thalamus)

95

Where does spinothalamic tract decussate?

Anterior white commisure

96

Where is the second synapse of the spinothalamic tract?

VPL (thalamus)

97

Where do lateral corticospinal tract fibers decussate?

Pyramids (caudal medulla)

98

Where is the 1st synapse of the corticospinal tract?

anterior horn of the spinal cord

99

Damage seen in pliomyelitis?

Anterior horn destruction--> flaccid paralysis

100

"demyelination of white matter of cervical region, random and asymmetric lesions"

multiple sclerosis

101

"combined UMN and LMN deficits with no sensory or oculomotir deficits"

ALS

102

Which area is spared in and ASA stroke/ occlusion?

Dorsal columns and Lissauer tract

103

"degeneration/ demyelination of dorsal columns and roots"

Tabes dorsalis

104

"bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation seen with Chiari I malformation"

Syringomyelia

105

At what spinal level is syringomyelia usually seen?

C8- T1

106

"degeneration of dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal tracts and spinocerebellar tracts"

subacute combined degenearation of vitamin B12 deficiency

107

What chromosome is friedreich ataxia associated with?

Chromosome 9 (trinucleotide repeat disorder)

108

What is the function of frataxin?

Fe binding protein

109

In Brown- Sequard Snyndrome (spinal cord hemisection) all signs are ipsilateral except...

contralateral pain and temperature loss below the level of the lesion

110

In Brown- Sequard Snyndrome (spinal cord hemisection) all signs are ipsilateral except...

contralateral pain and temperature loss below the level of the lesion

111

Inguinal ligament dermatome?

L1

112

Cap of skull dermatome?

C2

113

Erection and senation of penile and anal zones dermatome?

S2-S4

114

Dermatome at the level of the nipple?

T4

115

Dermatome of a low collar shirt?

C4

116

Dermatome of the umbilicus?

T10

117

Dermatome at the xyphoid process?

T7

118

Achilles reflex?

S1 S2

119

Patellar reflex?

L4 L5

120

Triceps reflex?

C7 C8

121

Bicepts reflex?

C5 C6

122

Cremaster reflex?

L1 L2

123

Anal wink reflex?

S3 S4

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