Flashcards in Neuro & Sensory Physiology Deck (147):
More numerous Glial of Neurons?
macrophages of the brain
regulates ECF ion levels; gives mechanical support forms BBB
creates myelin in the CNS
creates myelin in the PNS
brain tumors from non-mature neurons
neuroblastoma and retinoblastoma
Parts of a neuron: receiving portion of the neuron?
Parts of a neuron: where action potential in a neuron actually starts?
axon hillock (initial segment)
Parts of a neuron: function of myelin sheath?
Parts of a neuron: unmyelinated portion of the axon?
nodes of ranvier
Parts of a neuron: branches of the axons?
Parts of a neuron: terminal portion of a neural fibril that contains NT-containing vesicles?
axon terminal/ boutons/end feet
Parts of a neuron: space between two neurons
opening of Na-activation gates (Na influx)
closure of Na-inactivation gates + opening of K channels (K efflux)
membrane potential where AP is inevitable
portion of AP where MP is positive
portion of AP where MO is
no AP cab be elicited despite increase stimulus
more inward current needed to generate AP
other names: Na activation gates
other names: Na inactivation gates
other names: potassium gates
give two sodium channel blockers of neurons?
tetradotoxin (TTX- puffer fish) and Saxitoxin (dinoflagellates)
give an example of K channel blockers of neurons
causes activation of synaptic vesicles
Ca+2 voltage gated channels
death of axon distal to site of injury?
anterograde degeneration (aka valerian degeneration?)
changes to SOma after axon is transected?
axonal reaction/ chromatolysis
give examples of disease utilizing retrograde axonal transport?
axonal regeneration occurs better in which of the ff: CNS or PNS?
what is the principle that in the spinal cord the dorsal roots are sensory and the ventral roots are motor?
Neurotransmitters: found in the NMJ sympa and Para preganglionic neurons, para and some sympa post-gaglionic neurons?
found in the basal ganglia, large pyramidal cells of the motor cortex, gigantocellular neurons of the REA maybe excitatory or inhibitory?
triggers REM sleep
decreased levels in Huntingtons dementia and alzheimers dementia
found in the lucus ceruleus of pons, post-ganglionic sympa, for arousal/ wakefulness
secreted mainly by the adrenal medulla
Epiniphrine (80%) while norepi is 20%
found in the median raphe of the brain stem, from tryptophan converted to melatonin involved in mood and sleep
from arginine, not pre-formed (synthesize as needed) permeant gas
Mnemonic " ILOCUS NORte"
LOCUS ceruleus = NORepinephrine
Mnemonic " phenylalanine derivatives"
Pare true love does not exist to me
"Phenylalanine, tyrosine, L-dopa, dopamine, NE, epiniphrine, thyroxine, melanin"
Mnemonic Tryptophan derivatives
"trip mo sya noh?"
tryptophan, Melatonin, serotonin, Niacin
Neurotransmitters: found in the spinal interneurons main inhibitory NT; increases chloride influx?
Neurotransmitters: found in the brain, mainly inhibitory NT, from glutamate, increase chloride influx or potassium efflux
Neurotransmitters: excitatory NT in the CNS activate NMDA receptors
Neurotransmitters: inhibits neurons in the brain involved in pain perception
Neurotransmitters: involved in Fast pain
and Slow pain
the brain, lobe: hearing and balance
the brain, lobe: vision
the brain: lobe motor
the brain: lobe somato sensory
the brain: sex, thirst, appetite, body clock, temp
the brain: coughing, vomiting, swallowing, resp, and vasomotor center
the brain: apneustic, pneumotaxic center
the brain: micturaion center
the brain: behaviour emotions motivation
location: broca's area
opercular/triangular part of the Inferior frontal lobe BA 45
location: wernicke's area
superior temporal lobe BA 21,22
silent area of the brain contributes to balance
for communication between corresponding areas of teh cerebral hemespheres
where memory is stored
throughout the brain (esp temporal lobe)
3 types of memory
long term memory
output pathway from reward and punishment centers; lesions here will produce ANTEROgrade amnesia
helps search memory storehouses; lesions will produce RETROgrade amnesia relay station for almost all sensatoins
can see words but not readily grasp meaning despite normal intelligence
dermatomal level of anus?
EEG wave; alert
EEG wave; relaxed
EEG wave; deep sleep
EEG wave; REM sleep
substance suspected to induce sleep
percentage of REM sleep in newborns
regulates master clock
paraventricular nuclei (magnocellular cells)
responsible for appetite
lateral nuclei ("lamon")
responsible for satiety
ventromedial nuclei ("vuchog")
dissipation of heat
conservation of heat
medial forebrain bundle
what is the main mechanism for heat loss?
what is the main mechanism for heat conservation?
threshold for drinking water?
inc in plasma Na conc > 2 mEq/L
most metabolic organ in the body
organ with highest AVO2 difference?
CSF in the brain; Volume?
CSF produced per day
elements of BBB
endothelial cells, astrocyte foot processes, choroid plexus epithelium
sympa or para?: meiosis
sympa or para?: sweating
sympa or para?: salivation
sympa or para?: inc heart rate/ contractility
sympa or para?: bronchodilation
sympa or para?: GI motility
sympa or para?: GU and GI sphincter contraction
sympa or para?: uterine contraction and relaxation
sympa or para?: urination
sympa or para?: defecation
sympa or para?: vasodilation- skeletal muscle
sympa or para?: vasoconstriction skin GI tract
sympa or para?: erection
sympa or para?: pilorection
Tactile receptor: detects movement of objects and low freq vibrations found in glabrous skin
Tactile receptor: for continous touch, grouped into Iggo dome receptors
Tactile receptor: detects movement of objects in skin
hair end organ
Tactile receptor: for pressure for heavy and prolonged touch found in deep skin internal tissues and joint capsules
ruffini's end organ
Tactile receptor: for frequency vibration onion like in structure
detects steady stimulus seen in muscle spindle golgi tendon slow pain receptor etc..
slowly adapting receptors
small receptive field with well defined borders type1 or 2?
third order neuron of the sensory pathway are found where sensory receptor dorsal root cranial nerve ganglia spinal cord/brainstem
crosses the midline immediately ALS or DC
light touch ALS or DC
what temperature would trigger pain receptors
action potential in the retina is due to which of the ff dep or hyperpolarization?
how do i correct the following: myopia
how do i correct the following: hyperopia
how do i correct the following: astigmatism
how do i correct the following: presbyopia
substance which directly stimulates the rods?
the eye has 59 diopters of refractive power 1/3 is contributed by?
when looking at DISTANT objects the ciliary muscles are _____? the suspensory ligaments are _______? the lens are_____shape?
relaxed, tensed, flat
absorb stray light and prevent them from scattering
site of macular degeneration and retinal detachment
interneurons that connect ROds and Cones, contrast detectors
retinal glial cells that maintain internal geometry
retinal output cells whose axons form the optic nerve
function of pinna?
sound collection and localization
function of the middle ear
connects outer and middle ear (equalizes pressure)
for linear & sometimes angular acceleration/ deceleration
utricle & saccule
for vertical acceleration U or Saccule?
for Horizontal acceleratoin U or saccule?
Sensory: masks background noise
Sensory: max allowable workplace loudness x 8 hours
Sensory: loudness causing pain
Sensory: tongue location: sweet
tip of tongue
Sensory: tongue location: umami
Sensory: tongue location: salty sour
Sensory: tongue location: bitter
back of tongue
nerve fiber used by smell
taste w/ lowest stimulation threshold?