Neuro & Sensory Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro & Sensory Physiology Deck (147):
1

More numerous Glial of Neurons?

glial

2

produces CSF

ependymal cells

3

macrophages of the brain

microglia

4

regulates ECF ion levels; gives mechanical support forms BBB

astrocytes

5

creates myelin in the CNS

oligodenrocytes

6

creates myelin in the PNS

schwann cells

7

brain tumors from non-mature neurons

neuroblastoma and retinoblastoma

8

Parts of a neuron: receiving portion of the neuron?

dendrites

9

Parts of a neuron: where action potential in a neuron actually starts?

axon hillock (initial segment)

10

Parts of a neuron: function of myelin sheath?

insulator

11

Parts of a neuron: unmyelinated portion of the axon?

nodes of ranvier

12

Parts of a neuron: branches of the axons?

neural fibril

13

Parts of a neuron: terminal portion of a neural fibril that contains NT-containing vesicles?

axon terminal/ boutons/end feet

14

Parts of a neuron: space between two neurons

synapse

15

opening of Na-activation gates (Na influx)

depolarization

16

closure of Na-inactivation gates + opening of K channels (K efflux)

repolarization

17

membrane potential where AP is inevitable

threshold

18

portion of AP where MP is positive

overshoot

19

portion of AP where MO is

undershoot

20

no AP cab be elicited despite increase stimulus

ARP

21

more inward current needed to generate AP

RRP

22

other names: Na activation gates

M gate

23

other names: Na inactivation gates

H gate

24

other names: potassium gates

N gate

25

give two sodium channel blockers of neurons?

tetradotoxin (TTX- puffer fish) and Saxitoxin (dinoflagellates)

26

give an example of K channel blockers of neurons

tetraethylammonium

27

causes activation of synaptic vesicles

Ca+2 voltage gated channels

28

death of axon distal to site of injury?

anterograde degeneration (aka valerian degeneration?)

29

changes to SOma after axon is transected?

axonal reaction/ chromatolysis

30

give examples of disease utilizing retrograde axonal transport?

tetanus; butolism

31

axonal regeneration occurs better in which of the ff: CNS or PNS?

PNS

32

what is the principle that in the spinal cord the dorsal roots are sensory and the ventral roots are motor?

Bell-Magendie Law

33

Neurotransmitters: found in the NMJ sympa and Para preganglionic neurons, para and some sympa post-gaglionic neurons?

ACh

34

found in the basal ganglia, large pyramidal cells of the motor cortex, gigantocellular neurons of the REA maybe excitatory or inhibitory?

ACh

35

triggers REM sleep

ACh

36

decreased levels in Huntingtons dementia and alzheimers dementia

ACh

37

found in the lucus ceruleus of pons, post-ganglionic sympa, for arousal/ wakefulness

norEpi

38

secreted mainly by the adrenal medulla

Epiniphrine (80%) while norepi is 20%

39

found in the median raphe of the brain stem, from tryptophan converted to melatonin involved in mood and sleep

serotonin

40

from arginine, not pre-formed (synthesize as needed) permeant gas

Nitric oxide

41

Mnemonic " ILOCUS NORte"

LOCUS ceruleus = NORepinephrine

42

Mnemonic " phenylalanine derivatives"

Pare true love does not exist to me
"Phenylalanine, tyrosine, L-dopa, dopamine, NE, epiniphrine, thyroxine, melanin"

43

Mnemonic Tryptophan derivatives

"trip mo sya noh?"
tryptophan, Melatonin, serotonin, Niacin

44

Neurotransmitters: found in the spinal interneurons main inhibitory NT; increases chloride influx?

glycine

45

Neurotransmitters: found in the brain, mainly inhibitory NT, from glutamate, increase chloride influx or potassium efflux

(GABA-a) (GABA-B)

46

Neurotransmitters: excitatory NT in the CNS activate NMDA receptors

glutamate

47

Neurotransmitters: inhibits neurons in the brain involved in pain perception

opiod peptides

48

Neurotransmitters: involved in Fast pain
and Slow pain

glutamate
substance P

49

the brain, lobe: hearing and balance

temporal lobe

50

the brain, lobe: vision

occipital lobe

51

the brain: lobe motor

frontal lobe

52

the brain: lobe somato sensory

parietal lobe

53

the brain: sex, thirst, appetite, body clock, temp

hypothalamus

54

the brain: coughing, vomiting, swallowing, resp, and vasomotor center

medulla

55

the brain: apneustic, pneumotaxic center

pons

56

the brain: micturaion center

pons

57

the brain: behaviour emotions motivation

limbic system

58

location: broca's area

opercular/triangular part of the Inferior frontal lobe BA 45

59

location: wernicke's area

superior temporal lobe BA 21,22

60

silent area of the brain contributes to balance

cerebellum

61

for communication between corresponding areas of teh cerebral hemespheres

corpus callosum

62

where memory is stored

throughout the brain (esp temporal lobe)

63

3 types of memory

Short term
intermediate
long term memory

64

output pathway from reward and punishment centers; lesions here will produce ANTEROgrade amnesia

Hippocampus

65

helps search memory storehouses; lesions will produce RETROgrade amnesia relay station for almost all sensatoins

thalamus

66

can see words but not readily grasp meaning despite normal intelligence

dyslexia

67

dermatomal level of anus?

S5

68

sympathectomy effect

orthostatic hypotension

69

EEG wave; alert

beta wave

70

EEG wave; relaxed

alpha wave

71

EEG wave; deep sleep

delta wave

72

EEG wave; REM sleep

beta

73

substance suspected to induce sleep

muramyl peptide

74

percentage of REM sleep in newborns

50%

75

master clock

SCN

76

regulates master clock

Pineal gland

77

synthesizes vasopressin

supraoptic nuclei

78

synthesizes oxytocin

paraventricular nuclei (magnocellular cells)

79

responsible for appetite

lateral nuclei ("lamon")

80

responsible for satiety

ventromedial nuclei ("vuchog")

81

dissipation of heat

anterior nuclei

82

conservation of heat

posterior nuclei

83

reward center

medial forebrain bundle

84

social inhibition

amygdala

85

what is the main mechanism for heat loss?

radiation

86

what is the main mechanism for heat conservation?

shivering

87

threshold for drinking water?

inc in plasma Na conc > 2 mEq/L

88

most metabolic organ in the body

brain

89

organ with highest AVO2 difference?

heart

90

CSF in the brain; Volume?

150 ml

91

CSF produced per day

500 ml

92

elements of BBB

endothelial cells, astrocyte foot processes, choroid plexus epithelium

93

sympa or para?: meiosis

para

94

sympa or para?: sweating

sympa

95

sympa or para?: salivation

both

96

sympa or para?: inc heart rate/ contractility

sympa

97

sympa or para?: bronchodilation

sympa

98

sympa or para?: GI motility

para

99

sympa or para?: GU and GI sphincter contraction

sympa

100

sympa or para?: uterine contraction and relaxation

sympa

101

sympa or para?: urination

sympa

102

sympa or para?: defecation

sympa

103

sympa or para?: vasodilation- skeletal muscle

sympa

104

sympa or para?: vasoconstriction skin GI tract

sympa

105

sympa or para?: erection

para

106

sympa or para?: pilorection

sympa

107

Tactile receptor: detects movement of objects and low freq vibrations found in glabrous skin

meissners

108

Tactile receptor: for continous touch, grouped into Iggo dome receptors

merkels

109

Tactile receptor: detects movement of objects in skin

hair end organ

110

Tactile receptor: for pressure for heavy and prolonged touch found in deep skin internal tissues and joint capsules

ruffini's end organ

111

Tactile receptor: for frequency vibration onion like in structure

pacinian

112

detects steady stimulus seen in muscle spindle golgi tendon slow pain receptor etc..

slowly adapting receptors

113

small receptive field with well defined borders type1 or 2?

type 1

114

third order neuron of the sensory pathway are found where sensory receptor dorsal root cranial nerve ganglia spinal cord/brainstem

thalamus

115

crosses the midline immediately ALS or DC

ALS

116

light touch ALS or DC

Both

117

what temperature would trigger pain receptors

43

118

action potential in the retina is due to which of the ff dep or hyperpolarization?

hyperpolarization

119

how do i correct the following: myopia

biconcave lens

120

how do i correct the following: hyperopia

convex lens

121

how do i correct the following: astigmatism

cylindrical

122

how do i correct the following: presbyopia

convex

123

substance which directly stimulates the rods?

metarhodopsin 2

124

the eye has 59 diopters of refractive power 1/3 is contributed by?

lens

125

when looking at DISTANT objects the ciliary muscles are _____? the suspensory ligaments are _______? the lens are_____shape?

relaxed, tensed, flat

126

absorb stray light and prevent them from scattering

pigment epithelium

127

site of macular degeneration and retinal detachment

pigment epithelium

128

interneurons that connect ROds and Cones, contrast detectors

bipolar cells

129

retinal glial cells that maintain internal geometry

meuller cells

130

retinal output cells whose axons form the optic nerve

ganglion cells

131

function of pinna?

sound collection and localization

132

function of the middle ear

impedance matching

133

connects outer and middle ear (equalizes pressure)

eustachian tube

134

frequency analyzer

basilar membrane

135

for linear & sometimes angular acceleration/ deceleration

utricle & saccule

136

for vertical acceleration U or Saccule?

saccule

137

for Horizontal acceleratoin U or saccule?

utricle

138

Sensory: masks background noise

attenuation/ auditory

139

Sensory: max allowable workplace loudness x 8 hours

85-90 dB

140

Sensory: loudness causing pain

120 dB

141

Sensory: tongue location: sweet

tip of tongue

142

Sensory: tongue location: umami

tip

143

Sensory: tongue location: salty sour

sides

144

Sensory: tongue location: bitter

back of tongue

145

nerve fiber used by smell

type c

146

taste w/ lowest stimulation threshold?

bitter

147

produces ptyalin

parotid gland (serous)