Flashcards in NEURO: BRAIN REGION Deck (75)
what is the role of the frontal lobe?
voluntary movement on contralateral side of body
intellectual functioning, thought processes, reasoning and memory
where is broca's region located?
in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere
what does brocas area control?
speech and writing
what does damage to Broca's area result in?
expressive aphasia - they understand what people say by they have difficulty forming sentences
what is the role of the parietal lobe?
it receives and interprets sensations, including pain, touch, pressure and proprioception
what is the role of the temporal lobe?
where is wernickes area located?
in the temporal lobe
what is the role of wernickes area?
understanding spoken and written language
what does damage to wernickes area result in?
individuals have difficulty understanding written and spoken language
speech will be fluid but will contain unnecessary words
what is the role of the occipital lobe?
understanding visual images and written words
what is the thalamus?
responsible for all sensation (except olfactory) - they relay through the thalamus
it contains several nuclei
they are a paired symmetrical structure
where is the insula found?
it lies within the brain via the sylvian fissure
what is the role of the insula?
it is where the degree of pain is judged
it contributes to the subjective aspect of pain perception
where is the cingulate gyrus located?
on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres
what is the role of the cingulate gyrus?
it is linked with the limbic system
it is involved in emotional response to pain
where is the periaqueductal grey located?
in the midbrain
it is the grey matter that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct
what is the role of the periaqueductal grey?
it receives inputs from the somatosensory cortex and is part of the descending pain pathway
it contains high concentration of opioid receptors
what happens if the opioid receptors in the periaqueductal grey are activated?
substance P release is decreased resulting in reduced pain sensations
how do opioids work?
they bind to opioid receptors and reduce substance P release
where is the primary motor cortex located?
on the pre-central gyrus of the frontal lobe
what is the role of the direct pathway / cortical loop for motor movement?
it increases movement
what is the direct motor pathway / cortical loop?
- primary motor cortex sends excitatory messages to the striatum via glutamate
- this excites the striatum resulting in inhibitory massages being sent to internal globus pallidus and pars reticulata via GABA
- this sends inhibitory messages to the thalamus and pars compacta
- once the pars comapcta is reached, excitatory signals further excite the inhibtory pathway via dopamine which binds to D1 receptors
- this feeds back to the thalamus which sends excitatory signals to the primary motor cortex - results in increased movement
what is the role of the indirect motor pathway / cortical loop?
it decreases / stops movement
what is the indirect motor pathway / cortical loop?
- primary motor pathway sends excitatory signals to the putamen via glutamate
- this results in the striatum sending inhibitory signals to external globus pallidus via GABA
- this inhibits the external globus pallidus so it cannot inhibit the subthalamic nucleus
- therefore the subthalamic nucleus sends excitatory signals to internal globus pallidus and pars reticulata in a glutamate
- this causes inhibitory signals being sent to thalamus via GABA causing decrease in movment
what is the basal ganglia?
it is a group of nuclei lying deep within the cerebral hemisphere
what are the main components of the basal ganglia?
what structures make up the dorsal striatum?
the caudate nucleus and the putamen
what structures make up the lentiform nucleus?
the putamen and the globus pallidus
what structures make up the ventral striatum?
nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle