NEURO: BRAIN REGION Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in NEURO: BRAIN REGION Deck (75)
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1

what is the role of the frontal lobe?

voluntary movement on contralateral side of body
intellectual functioning, thought processes, reasoning and memory

2

where is broca's region located?

in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere

3

what does brocas area control?

speech and writing

4

what does damage to Broca's area result in?

expressive aphasia - they understand what people say by they have difficulty forming sentences

5

what is the role of the parietal lobe?

it receives and interprets sensations, including pain, touch, pressure and proprioception

6

what is the role of the temporal lobe?

hearing
memory
emotion

7

where is wernickes area located?

in the temporal lobe

8

what is the role of wernickes area?

understanding spoken and written language

9

what does damage to wernickes area result in?

receptive aphasia
individuals have difficulty understanding written and spoken language
speech will be fluid but will contain unnecessary words

10

what is the role of the occipital lobe?

understanding visual images and written words

11

what is the thalamus?

responsible for all sensation (except olfactory) - they relay through the thalamus
it contains several nuclei
they are a paired symmetrical structure

12

where is the insula found?

it lies within the brain via the sylvian fissure

13

what is the role of the insula?

it is where the degree of pain is judged
it contributes to the subjective aspect of pain perception

14

where is the cingulate gyrus located?

on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres

15

what is the role of the cingulate gyrus?

it is linked with the limbic system
it is involved in emotional response to pain

16

where is the periaqueductal grey located?

in the midbrain
it is the grey matter that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct

17

what is the role of the periaqueductal grey?

it receives inputs from the somatosensory cortex and is part of the descending pain pathway
it contains high concentration of opioid receptors

18

what happens if the opioid receptors in the periaqueductal grey are activated?

substance P release is decreased resulting in reduced pain sensations

19

how do opioids work?

they bind to opioid receptors and reduce substance P release

20

where is the primary motor cortex located?

on the pre-central gyrus of the frontal lobe

21

what is the role of the direct pathway / cortical loop for motor movement?

it increases movement

22

what is the direct motor pathway / cortical loop?

- primary motor cortex sends excitatory messages to the striatum via glutamate
- this excites the striatum resulting in inhibitory massages being sent to internal globus pallidus and pars reticulata via GABA
- this sends inhibitory messages to the thalamus and pars compacta
- once the pars comapcta is reached, excitatory signals further excite the inhibtory pathway via dopamine which binds to D1 receptors
- this feeds back to the thalamus which sends excitatory signals to the primary motor cortex - results in increased movement

23

what is the role of the indirect motor pathway / cortical loop?

it decreases / stops movement

24

what is the indirect motor pathway / cortical loop?

- primary motor pathway sends excitatory signals to the putamen via glutamate
- this results in the striatum sending inhibitory signals to external globus pallidus via GABA
- this inhibits the external globus pallidus so it cannot inhibit the subthalamic nucleus
- therefore the subthalamic nucleus sends excitatory signals to internal globus pallidus and pars reticulata in a glutamate
- this causes inhibitory signals being sent to thalamus via GABA causing decrease in movment

25

what is the basal ganglia?

it is a group of nuclei lying deep within the cerebral hemisphere

26

what are the main components of the basal ganglia?

caudate nucleus
putamen
nucleus accumbens
olfactory tubercle
globus pallidus
ventral pallidum
substantia nigra
subthalamic nucleus

27

what structures make up the dorsal striatum?

the caudate nucleus and the putamen

28

what structures make up the lentiform nucleus?

the putamen and the globus pallidus

29

what structures make up the ventral striatum?

nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle

30

what is the role of the basal ganglia?

- facilitates purposeful behaviour and movement
- inhibits unwanted movement
- controls posture and movement
- it selects which competing system to activate - emotions, cognitions, sensorimotor etc.