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Flashcards in Neuro Part 1 Deck (43):
1

Change in temperature involves brain activity

Seizure

2

Epilepsy/seizure disorder a disease of the brain defined by any of the ff

Atleast 2 unprovoked occuring >24 hours apart
1 unprovoked after 2 unprovoked seizure occuring within the next 10 years
Diagnosis of epilepsy syndrome

3

Seizure before and now

Before kailangan ng recurrence
Now kahit wala na

4

Represent provoked seizure defined as epilepsy; tendency to respond to such stimuli with seizure

Recurrence reflex seizure

5

Recurrence reflex seizure

There is thickening of the eyelids and stiffening of the extremeties. Like mga ilaw sa disco

Auto stimulation

6

Seizure differential diagnosis

Disorder considering of cluster of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together plus its EEG findings.

Epileptic syndrome

7

Seizure differential diagnosis

Example of epileptic syndrome

West syndrome

8

Seizure differential diagnosis

Paroxysmal events that may mimic seizures

Non-epileptic paroxysmal disorders

9

Seizure differential diagnosis

Episodic events- breath holding spells
Cyanotic

Non-epileptic Paroxysmal disorders

10

Seizure differential diagnosis

A person no longer has epilepsy but still may recur.

Resolved epilepsy

11

Example of resolved epilepsy

Infantile spasm- start from newborn up to 2 years of age

12

Seizure differential diagnosis
Resolve epilepsy
Infantile spasm

PT who has age dependent epilepsy syndrome

13

Seizure differential diagnosis

Resolved epilepsy
Patient remain seizure free

Free for past 10 years
Free from ang epileptic drug for 5 years

14

Mechanism of seizure generation that involves cations

Cellular level

15

Mechanism of seizure generations that involves neurotransmitter

Synaptic level

16

Basis of anti epileptic drugs

Neurotransmitter

17

There is neuronal swelling, which will trigger tissue excitability, thus producing seizure

Increase influx of Na channels

18

Cell hyper excitability, firing of thalamic and cortical neurons that produces seizure

Calcium and potassium channels

19

Cellular level

Na
K
Ca

20

Synaptic level

Neurotransmitter such as GABA (inhibitory)
Glutamate (stimulatory)

21

Synaptic level

Both leads to hyper excitable state which may cause SEizuresq

GABA decreased concentration
Glutamate increased concentration

22

Causes of partial seizure

Hypoxia
Infection
Cryptogenic cause
Depressed skull fracture
Tumor
Hemorrhage
Infarction
Congenital abnormalities

23

Infection

Meningitis
Encephalitis

24

Congenital abnormalities

Vascular malformation
Aneurysm
AV malformation
Cerebral angioma
Cortical Dysplasia (thick cortex)

25

Mother and father has seizure

50% incidence that the bay will have a seizure also

26

Cause of generalized seizure

Genetic influence
Environmental toxins
Illicit or prescription drugs
Drug and alcohol use and withdrawal

27

International classification of epilepsy 1981

Generalized
Partial
Unclassified

28

International classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes 1989

Localization related (focal local partial)
Genralized
Epilepsies undetermined
Special syndromes

29

International classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes 1989

Idiopathic with age related onset
Symptomatic

Local or focal

30

International classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes 1989

With both generalized and focal seizures
Without unequivocal or focal seizures

Epilepsies undetermined

31

International classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes 1989

Situation related seizures
Isolated apparently unprovoked seizures
Epilepsies by specific mode of seizure
Chronic progressive epilepsia partialis continua

Special syndromes

32

Classification as to etiology

Then

Idiopathic
Symptomatic
Cryptogenic

33

Classification as to etiology

Now

Genetic
Structural
Unknown

34

Classification as to etiology

Now

Genetic markers
Na K Ca are markers

Genetic

Channelopathies

35

Classification as to etiology

Now
metabolic caused by a structural or metabolic disorder of the brain

Structural

36

Classification as to etiology

Structural

Tubers in para ventricular lining

Tuberous sclerosis

37

Classification as to etiology

Cortical malformation
Advance in neuroimaging

Structural

38

Classification as to etiology

Might be genetic, structural or metabolic

Unknown

39

Classification as to mode of presentation

Then

Involves both hemisphere

Generalized seizure

40

Classification as to mode of presentation

Then

Initiate activation of seizures limited to one part of the hemisphere

Partial or focal seizure

41

Classification as to mode of presentation

Now

Originates at some point, bilaterally distributed, cortical and sub cortical

Generalized seizure

42

Classification as to mode of presentation

Now

Originates from within networks limited to one hemisphere

Focal seizure

43

Transient occurrence of signs and symptoms due to an abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain

Seizure