Flashcards in Neurological Disorders - Alzheimer's Disease Deck (22):
What is dementia and where is it present?
Altered neural fx and loss of ordered neural fx
Loss of cognition
And it is present in several unrelated disorders
What is Alzheimer's disease always associated with?
What is Alzheimer's disease?
Progressive and irreversible degenerative disorder
When does Alzheimer's disease manifest?
65 and increases prevalence as age increases
What is the etiology of Alzheimer's disease?
90% is idiopathic (known as the sporadic form and occurs after age 65 - apoE gene is implicated)
10% is familial
In 10% of cases of Alzheimer's which has a familial etiology, what chromosomes and genes are involved and when does it set in?
Chromosome 1 12 14 21
APP, PS1, PS2 genes
People with which syndrome are at an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and why?
Down syndrome because a mutation on the same chromosome (21) is involved in AD too
What does the APP gene code for and what happens if it is mutated in AD?
codes for precursor of amyloid protein, accumulation of amyloid proteins occur if gene is mutated
Which chromosome is the ps1 gene on?
Which chromosome is the ps2 gene on?
What is the patho of AD?
The cerebral cortex atrophy - prominent sulci (dips) and slender gyri (neural tissue)
What causes the lesions in AD? Do they lesions impact anything?
Accumulation of proteins
They impact neural fx
What parts of the brain are affected in AD?
Amygdala and hippocampus
What form the neuritic plaques in AD? Are they permanent? Where are they located?
Accumulation of amyloid protein
At terminal end of neurons
What causes neurofibrillary tangles in AD? Are they permanent?
Accumulation of fibrous protein in cytoplasm of cells
They are resistant to breakdown and persist after necrosis
What neurotransmitter is decreased in AD?
What are the manifestations of mild AD (2-4 yr)
Memory problems, careless work habits, familiar routine is manageable
What are the manifestations of moderate AD (2-10 years)
Decline in cognition
Language problems (interpreting/reception)
Problems with ADLs
Paraphasias (using words in wrong context)
What are the manifestations of severe AD (approx 2 year)
Severe mental impairment
Minimal volume movement
No self care
Bladder and bowel in continent
Rigid flexor posturing
What is the primary feature of AD?
How is AD diagnosed?
No definitive test
Determine other diagnosis with and exclude dementia from other causes
EEG, CT, MRI, labs (to exclude other dementia)