Neurology Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics > Neurology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurology Deck (40):
1

Most severe form of neural tube defect

Meningocele

2

When does Neural tube closure usually occur?

3rd-4th week in utero

3

Dosage for Folic acid supplementation recommended for pregnant mothers for prevention of NTDs

0.4 mg once a day

4

Dosage for Folic acid supplementation recommended for pregnant mothers with precious pregnancies with NTDs

4 mg once a day

5

Rudimentary brain due to failure of closure of the rostral neuropore

Anencephaly

6

Absent cerebral convolutions and a poorly formed Sylvian fissure

Lissencephaly (Agyria)

7

Uni- or bilateral clefts within the cerebral hemispheres

Schizencephaly

8

Presence of cysts or cavities within the brain

Porencephaly

9

Most severe form of Holoprosencephaly

Alobar

10

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid plexus epithelium within the cerebral ventricles

11

Triad:
Agenesis of cerebellar vermis
Cystic dilatation of 4th ventricle
Enlargement of posterior fossa

Dandy-Walker malformation

12

Triad:
Short webbed neck
Decreased ROM of cervical vertebrae
Low posterior hairline, accompanied by hydrocephalus

Klippel-Feil syndrome

13

Abnormal glycosylation of a-dystroglycan, causing ocular dysgenesis

Walker-Warburg syndrome

14

Cerebral hemispheres are absent, but intact midbrain and brainstem

Hydranencephaly

15

Major cause of complication of shunts in management of hydrocephalus

Staphylococcus epidermidis infection

16

2 or more unprovoked seizures occurring in a time frame of >24 hrs

Epilepsy

17

Single nocturnal seizure with clinic movement of the mouth and gurgling

Benign Rolandic Epilepsy

18

Sudden cessation of motor activity or speech with blank facial expression and flickering of the eyelids

Absence seizures

19

Management of infantile spasms

Vigabatrin

20

Duration of complex febrile seizure

>15 minutes

21

Febrile, Repeated convulsions within 24 hours

Complex febrile seizure

22

Febrile seizure occurs only once in 24 hrs, lasting a few seconds

Simple febrile seizure

23

One seizure lasting 30 minutes or multiple seizures in 30 mins without regaining consciousness

Status Epilepticus

24

According to PPS guidelines, ALL infants younger than ________ should have a lumbar puncture done if first simple febrile seizure

<18 months

25

Treatment of status migrainosus (persistent headache > 3 days)

Prochlorperazine IV

26

Infantile spasms, Shagreen patch in lumbosacral region, Characteristic candle-dripping appearance in brain CT

Tuberous sclerosis

27

Neurocutaneous syndrome affecting many organs like the skin, brain, heart, kidney, eyes, lungs, bone.

Child with infantile spasm, hypopigmented ash leaf skin lesions

Tuberous sclerosis

28

Cafe-au-lait macules sparing the face;
Axillary/inguinal freckling
iris Lisch nodules
Neurofibromas
Optic glioma

Neurofibromatosis 1

29

Abnormality of neural crest differentiation and migration. Characterized by Bilateral 8th nerve masses (acoustic neuroma)

Neurofibromatosis 2

30

Top 3 causes of Bacterial meningitis in the 1st 2 mos of life

GBS
L. monocytogenes
Enterococci

31

Expected CSF findings in Bacterial meningitis

Pleocytosis, High CSF protein, Low CSF glucose

32

Expected CSF findings in viral meningitis

Lymphocytosis, normal to slightly increased protein, normal glucose

33

Most common etiology of viral meningitis

Echovirus (enterovirus subgroup of Picornaviridae); coxsackie, adenovirus, CMV, HSV

34

Rapid fatigue of muscles (proximal>distal) associated with ptosis and extraocular muscle weakness

Myasthenia Gravis

35

Thymoma is often associated with what neuromuscular disorder?

Myasthenia gravis

Thymoma is thought to be the site of production of autoantibodies against Ach receptors

36

Paralysis following a nonspecific viral infection with weakness beginning in lower extremities and progressively involving the trunk, upper limbs and bulbar muscles

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

37

Most common cause of GIT infection associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Campylobacter jejuni

38

Triad:
Acute ophthalmoplegia
Ataxia
Areflexia

Miller-Fisher syndrome

39

Albuminocytologic dissociation is diagnostic for what neuromuscular disorder?

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

40

Brain tumor, with circular patterns of tumor cells surrounding a center of neutrophils (Homer-Wright rosettes)

Medulloblastoma