Neuromodulation & Plasticity Flashcards Preview

Term IV: Neuro > Neuromodulation & Plasticity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuromodulation & Plasticity Deck (25):
1

How do neuromodulators act?

1. Change intracellular Ca2+ to trigger specific Ca2+ regulatory enzyme systems
2. Activate specific G-Proteins that couple to the activation or inhibition of different enzyme cascades

2

What is en passant atypical synaptic connection?

Synapsing onto other synapses

3

Name the primary neuromodulatory molecule for the following classes:

- Cholinergic
- Catecholamines
- Indoleamines
- Neuropeptides

- ACh in the CNS
- Dopamine in the CNS
- Serotonin
- Many - released to change system state or regulate pain

4

How are peptide transmitters synthesized?

Into vesicles in ER as inactive precursors

5

Where in the neuron are neuropeptides synthesized?

soma

6

What is neuroplasticity?

Changes in nervous system function, revealed as changes in neuronal firing in response to same stimulus - underlies changes in Learning & Memory

7

Changes in learning and memory and plasticity can be directly related to_____

pattern of preceding experiences

8

Two main classes of plasticity:

1. Excitability- Changes in Likelihood of firing Action Potentials in response to the same stimuli
2. Synaptic- Changes in the strengths of connections between neurons

9

What receptor is a classic example for coincidence detection?

NMDA receptor

10

What blocks the NMDA receptor from conducting at negative potentials? What relieves the blockade?

Extracellular Mg2+ blockade

Relieved by depolarization to positive potential, opening channel conduction

11

Hebbian Plasticity Rules

- If synaptic inputs from neuron A contribute to the firing of the post-synaptic neuron B, then the connection from A to B will be strengthened
- If synaptic inputs from neuron A are not associated with the firing of post-synaptic neuron B, then the connection from A to B will be weakened.

12

Plasticity in what part of the brain is important for learning and memory?

Hippocampus

13

What is spike timing plasticity?

Presynaptic Cell fires AP before Post-synaptic cell- Connection Strengthens

Postsynaptic Cell fires AP before Presynaptic cell- Connection Weakens

14

Pairing Synaptic activity with ____________Strengthens Synapses

Post-synaptic Depolarization

15

Long-term potentiation results in growth of dendritic____ and insertion of new _______ receptors

Spines

Glutamate receptors

16

NMDA Receptor Ca2+ Influx Triggers ______ Activation

CamK2

17

Following LTP, _____ receptors are inserted into the Post-Synaptic membrane

AMPA

18

Repetitive synaptic stimulation without action potential firing ______ synaptic strength.

weakens

19

The hippocampal and cerebellar LTD stimulation paradigm cause _____ of AMPA receptors, weakening synaptic strength. How is the mechanism different in cerebellar?

internalization

Cerebellar - does so in a protein kinase dependent manner

20

Cerebellar function depends critically on _______ modulation of parallel fiber synapses

Climbing fiber

21

What do climbing fibers carry?

Error signals used to suppress granule cell synapses that are active at the same time as the climbing fiber

22

Cerebellar LTD uses Ca2+ signaling, but is produced by activation of ____

Kinases

23

What is inhibitor for mvts in cerebellar LTD?

Purkinje output

24

If parallel fibers are driving Purkinje cells excessively, _____ send a correction signal to reduce synaptic efficacy of active synapses

Climbing fibers

25

Granule cell synapses weaken when their activity is paired with ______

climbing fibers