Neuropsychopharmacology Part 2: Antimanic, Antianxiety, Hypnotics, Muscle Relaxants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuropsychopharmacology Part 2: Antimanic, Antianxiety, Hypnotics, Muscle Relaxants Deck (28)
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1

lithium: what it is, mechanism

-antimanic (treats bipolar disorder)
-blocks the phosphatase that converts IP2 to IP1, which blocks the recycling of inositol substrates and therefore reduces release of IP3 and DAG

2

carbamazepine: what it is, mechanism

-antiseizure agent used for bipolar disorder
-blocks sodium channels and inhibits the generation of repetitive action potentials

3

valproic acid: what it is, mechanism, side effect

-antiseizure agent used for bipolar disorder
-blocks repetitive neuronal firing
-side effects: teratogenicity (spina bifida)

4

side effect: increased risk of spina bifida

valproic acid

5

antiseizure agents used for long-term control of bipolar disorder (2)

carbamazepine, valproic acid

6

alprazolam: what it is, mechanism, onset of action

-benzodiazepine anxiolytic
-GABA enhancement
-rapid onset of action (minutes)

7

diazepam: what it is, mechanism, duration of action, use other than major use

-benzodiazepine anxiolytic
-GABA enhancement
-long duration of action
-muscle relaxant

8

buspirone: what it is, mechanism, advantage over benzodiazepines, onset of action

-antianxiety agent that is NOT a benzodiazepine
-partial agonist at 5-HT1A receptors
-less sedating than benzodiazepines
-therapeutic effects may take 1-2 weeks or more

9

-antianxiety agent that is NOT a benzodiazepine
-partial agonist at 5-HT1A receptors
-less sedating than benzodiazepines
-therapeutic effects may take 1-2 weeks or more

buspirone

10

-benzodiazepine anxiolytic
-GABA enhancement
-rapidly absorbed
-long duration of action
-muscle relaxant

diazepam

11

-benzodiazepine anxiolytic
-GABA enhancement
-rapid onset of action (minutes)

alprazolam

12

chlordiazepoxide

benzodiazepine prescribed for alcohol withdrawal

13

benzodiazepine prescribed for alcohol withdrawal

chlordiazepoxide

14

effects of benzodiazepines (flurazepam) on sleep

increase stage 1 and 2 sleep, decrease stage 3, 4, and REM sleep

15

benzodiazepine used primarily as a hypnotic (treatment for insomnia)

flurazepam

16

adverse effects common to all benzodiazepines

daytime sedation, ataxia, rebound insomnia, dependence

17

zolpidem: use, mechanism, advantages over benzodiazepines

-treats insomnia
-binds omega-1 BDZ receptor
-less disruption of sleep architecture, no daytime sedation

18

drugs used to treat muscle spasticity (3)

diazepam, baclofen, tizanidine

19

diazepam for muscle spasticity: mechanism, side effect

-enhances action of GABA at GABA-A receptor Cl- channel complex
-produces sedation

20

baclofen: use, mechanism, positive aspect

-treats muscle spasticity
-GABA-B receptor agonist
-as effective as diazepam with less sedation

21

tizanidine: use, mechanism

-treats muscle spasticity
-alpha2-adrenergic agonist

22

benzodiazepines: mechanism

increases chloride conduction by opening GABAA receptor associated with chloride ion channel --> hyperpolarization --> increases inhibition, decreases excitation

23

benzodiazepine that does not form active metabolites

lorazepam

24

drugs used to treat insomnia

benzodiazepines (flurazepam), zolpidem, and chloral hydrate

25

flurazepam

benzodiazepine used primarily as a hypnotic (treatment for insomnia)

26

-treats muscle spasticity
-GABA-B receptor agonist
-as effective as diazepam with less sedation

baclofen

27

binds omega-1 BDZ receptor

zolpidem

28

chloral hydrate: use

treats insomnia